The main objective of this report is to assess an endorsement of each of the triple constraints of project by the explanations of the importance of managing the cost, managing the requirements and the importance of effectively managing schedule of opening ceremony of games. In this report each of the above elements of triple constraints of project management will be discussed in detail. Our project aim is to fully utilize the triple constraints and provide excellent results in opening ceremony of Commonwealth Games 2014.
INTRODUCTION OF PROJECT
Effectively managing projects to scope, schedule, & cost is a difficult & critical job. Companies all over the world hire competitive & outstanding project managers for successfully completion of their assigned projects. This scenario is gaining so much importance for managing multi sports global events.
Commonwealth Games is an international manifold sports occasion. This sports event is sponsored by an organization called Commonwealth Games Federation after every four years. Presently it comprises of 54 member nations. The twentieth Commonwealth Games is going to be held at Glasgow from 24th July to 3rd August in 2014. Hence Government of Scotland will have to manage & prepare well to greet 71 participating teams of Commonwealth Group. There will be seventeen games in which 6500 athletes will take a part at different venues.
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The opening ceremony for Commonwealth Games 2014 will be held on 24th July 2014 at Celtic Park stadium which is located in the East End of Glasgow. Currently this stadium can accommodate 60,000 spectators which is the highest capacity place in the city. The Flag march of various countries will also take place here. The closing ceremony of this upcoming international games event will be held at the second largest stadium of Glasgow which is known as Hampden Park.
The following is the Iconic Logo for this mega sports event was revealed in front of more than thousand guests invited on Commonwealth Day 8th March 2010 at Glasgow.
Project planning deals in managing the overall activities to stage an outstanding opening ceremony from concept planning through the completion of the venue tear-down. The project manager should involve those team members who have relevant knowledge of project implementation.
Strong lines of communication will improve and a better understanding of the project can be gained and will set the foundation for good teamwork during the implementation stage. Strong communicators are best project managers hence it is vital to maintain better communication level across the whole project management process (Pillai, 2006).
In effective project planning communication with stakeholders is also important in the development stages as it is vital to build good relations with the stakeholders who are recognized as being most critical for the end result (Graee, 2007). Project planning will include crowd management, access operations, easy ticketing, public information services, and lost and found cell and accessibility support services.
The requirement is also called the Scope of a project. The requirement is that whatever is already been discussed or to what has been agreed to be achieved in a particular project is known as the requirement or the scope of a project. In other words, the requirement specifically lays out the tasks, features, information, content, etc. that will be included in the project at hand. As it can predict or foresee the final outcome of a project if not exact but near about by the layout of the requirement.
The requirements specified to accomplish the outcome. The overall definition of requirement what the project is going to accomplish, and a specific description of what the outcome should be or accomplish. The main component of requirement is the quality. At the end quality is something which is really matters.
During the project cycle if some features or functions are added or subtracted then surely it will either shorten or lengthen the completion time of a project and also it will either increase or decrease the cost as well. It may affect quality if requirements are added to the project but the time of completion, remains the same then it might affect the quality of a project. On the other hand if requirements are added and allotted time has also increased but the resources are not increased then it can also affect quality of a project.
The key objective of this project is not only to fling the tourism & sports to new heights in Glasgow but also to create long lasting & an outstanding image of Glasgow City which provides value for money, amusement, & healthy environment to spectators all around the world.
To achieve long term objective of this mega event we have to manage opening ceremony successfully so that Glasgow can position itself in the competitive global market by raising its profile to high echelon. By delivering an unforgettable event for visitors, it can provide economic benefit of £26 million for Glasgow & £81 million for Scotland. Beyond economic benefits of hosting this mega event, there will be a momentous time to increase wellbeing of social & cultural diversity of Scotland.
The Commonwealth Games will be a memorable spectator event. There will be sale of more than million tickets on this mega event. As major venues will be decided then publicity campaign for sale of tickets will be launched.
Opening ceremony will be a great opportunity for Glasgow to establish a long lasting legacy by the cast of hundreds of volunteer who will make it really thrilling and momentous event & it will be watched by one billion people around the globe. There will be performance of mass maneuvered dance by cast from whole Scotland. It will give long lasting impressive Scottish symbol in which both new & diverse dimensions of society will be depicted which is contributing to Commonwealth Games. This exciting event will start with dedication to adults & all athletes & dignitaries & officials who are going to attend.
International sports spirit will embody in opening ceremony, with its strong cultural component, festivity of tradition, artistic beauty and overall performance. Giant video screens will provide visualization & creative colour lighting will played a major role in providing total visual solutions for the exciting opening ceremony of the Commonwealth Games 2014. The event will be highlighted by a stunning gigantic cone-fashioned video display show in the centre of the stadium that will provide a magical experience to spectators.
A guard of honor mounted by the volunteers marched the Scottish Flag to the flag post. At the same time they will perform an arrangement of the National Anthem by singing Flower of Scotland in English. Commonwealth flag will enter from welcome pole. The participating countries will march in, with Scotland coming first & then other nations will join the marching event according to the alphabetical order.
The inauguration of games will start with opening remarks of President of Commonwealth Games Federation who will declare the official opening of games. There will be a lot of melodic extravaganza comprising of Scottish and overseas artists. There will be also a lot of fireworks. Many celebrities from Hollywood, international sports, & politics will address the crowd of people and athletes.
Budget of Project:
The budget is prepared in consideration of inflation & other sizeable elements.
Amount of Bid
Broadcasting & Legislative Cost
Marketing & Sponsorship
It is the next component of the Triple Constraint which is recognized as Cost. When we converse regarding the cost of a project, we are conversing about what is required to be allocated to the project in reference of cash and endeavour so that the work can be started. It can be resources like workforce; it can be equipment and different supplies essential for work, funds for risk administration and evaluation.
To build up an estimation for a project cost, it depends on a number of aspects for instance: resources, labour packages likes labour pays and extenuating or handling aspects that increase cost, different methods utilized in cost are, risk administration, cost contingency, cost escalation, and indirect costs.
However further in this fundamental accounting approach to fixed and changeable costs, the economic cost that have to be considered comprise employee talent and efficiency that is computed using a variety of project cost estimation methods. It is significant when corporations employ provisional or contract workers or outsource employment.
Cost Process Dimensions: Cost approximation is an assessment of the cost of all the things essential for carrying out work; Cost financial plan is totalling the approximate costs of resources, job packages and actions to set up a cost baseline, cost managing- feature that create cost variation and discrepancy can be manipulated and managed through utilizing a range of cost administration methods.
Elements in Cost Analysis:
Equivalent approximation method: Through the cost of similar project to establish the cost of the present project
Establish Resource expenditures: The expenditure on merchandise and workers is assembled by estimation.
Down up estimating: Utilizing the smallest level of job package feature and summing up the cost linked to it. Then moving it up to an upper level intended then scheming the whole cost of the project.
Parametric estimation: Determining the statistical association among past data and other variables.
Vendor offer examining: Taking the average of a number of offers specified by vendors for the project.
Reserve examining: Total the cost of each activity on the system path then add a contingency or reserve to the finished outcome of the examining by an aspect established by the project manager.
Cost of Quality Analysis: Approximation of the cost at the maximum quality for every activity.
The Scottish Government is contributing £344 million ($498 million) to Glasgow 2014 with the remainder coming from Glasgow City Council, who are putting in £80 million ($116 million), and commercial income of £100 million ($145 million) raised by the organizing committee.
Cost is as important constraint as other two in the Triple Constraints. Unless the project is funded by a wealthy sponsor otherwise we will have to consider the cost/resource constraint.
If funds are limited for a project then it is important that we do not exceed the number of workers also try to finish the job on time because extra time means extra money for workers and extra cost for the machinery which is being used in the project. So keeping this in mind, our main focus will be on the Triple Constraints and factors related to it.
Every project task will have a cost so as our project, whether it is the cost of the labor hours of interior designers, architects, workers or the price of required materials. In the phase of making a project budget each of these and other cost is estimated so there won’t be any hindrances during the operation of our project. Estimation will not always be accurate; some of these will be more accurate than others. Cost of labor varies due to their position i.e. architects, worker, supervisors and interior designers, but it can be predicted and will be accurate.
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On the other hand price of required material often fluctuate. If there are changes made in our project then the cost will definitely increase or decrease as per the changes. It is always better if changes are clear and mention up front not during the project. It keeps the whole team as well as the clients stress free. Almost every company at the start of a project set aside some design allowance (money) for any emergency situations. This reserves money usually used when the actual cost of the item is different than what was estimated. We are also setting aside design allowance for “just in case”.
Unexpected weather change and problems with receiving material from the supplier are very usual on long and big projects. We are including a contingency amount for the project budget in order to cover these kinds of mishaps. Here we will be trying to meet our estimated cost by finishing our project on time and not go beyond the estimated cost. In addition we have to keep the profit in mind as well and try to maximize it by not delaying the project and efficiently using our resources.
Work Breakdown Structure:
In the project management team has to look at how much time is being devoted to each segment and determines the amount of man hours and workers needed to complete the project. Schedule, in project management is examined down to its least details. The quantity of time necessary to finish each and every part of a project is examined. Once a study is engaged, those parts are split further into the time necessary to do each job. Clearly through this company is able to approximate the time of the project and what and how many resources are required to be devoted to that project.
For investigative reason, the time necessary to complete a project in a better way is approximated using a number of methods. One way is to recognize tasks required to complete a project. The work attempt for every task is approximated and that estimations are moved up into the final assessment. The tasks are as well prioritized, dependency among tasks is recognized, and following knowledge is written down in a project timetable. The dependency between the tasks can influence the period of the project. Schedule is dissimilar from resources and cost group.
Gantt chart is a useful planning tool. The Gantt chart is a simple & a targeted production goal which is based on studies (Darmody, 2007). This is extremely pertinent to the project as projections will be based upon the trial move carried out by Senior Project Manager. It is known that in order to meet the project budget we will have to meet our project schedule. Problem occurs only when the project is somehow delayed and not finished on time, it destroys the budget. It does not assure that if we meet the schedule we will meet the budget too, but significantly will increase the chances.
Team Management for Project:
Project planning also involve recruiting, managing, & training teams numbering in the tens of thousands. The team will comprise the project manager, overseen by senior management and further staff related to the chosen strategy. This may be in-house staff, contractors or a mixture of the both. Every effort of planning can be squandered if it is not supported by training of volunteers joining the opening ceremony.
PROJECT MONITORING, RISK & CONTROL
There are four critical factors for effective control & monitoring of a project. These are risk, change, quality, & issue. Risk & issue are usually interchangeable. But the issue is something which is already recognized whereas risk is something which so far has to happen. The identification & evaluation of problematic areas is the best & accurate method to decrease the effects of risk & issue. Efficient & flexible control systems must be placed in order to ensure the success of project by strongly monitoring of vital elements of project which are time, cost, and performance. It is better to be proactive rather than reactive in managing project (Barber, 2005).
Spectators’ crowd and security management needs priority monitoring. Specific actions for implementation will need to be taken timely if any flaw in management of opening ceremony is discovered. For this purpose strict surveillance will be done by junior team members.
Risk is an inherent part of the project & there could be enormous number of risks associated with the project but strong measures against risk will make it more certain for successful completion of project. These measures are tight security screening for public safety, intensive site security & asset protection, planning for high-risk crowd management.
Dealing with Uncertainties:
There are some methods that could to reduce the uncertainties in the project planning and may help to cope with those risks and proceed with the project. These coping strategies can be classified as:
Project planning should be assessed on the basis of the external environment like excellent monitoring by the organization. To reduce the major uncertainty exist in the project planning external environment should be asses on the continuous basis.
All the information used in the project planning should have some uniformity and standardization procedure should be used, like all the relevant data should be collected.
Critically evaluate the assumption use to collect data and tools that have been use for planning, it should be kept in mind that selecting a accurate planning along with the uncertainties is the main objective of project management planning.
Critical Reflections on Learning Outcome-01
”The Knowledge of the Phenomenon of Project Life Cycle and Alternative Approaches to Management of Projects”
The project management is a complex process but ostensibly simple task need skillful manager. Being a Senior Project Manager I have to consider everything equally like requirements of the task, stakeholders, & the people who involve in managing the project. Project management is like a winding road which takes you back & forth from what we hope & what we think and also from what we feel to what we do (Srica, 2008).
The main reason for developing such project life cycle is to analyze the sustainability of the profit that lead Glasgow toward more robust economic growth which might lead toward more tourist attraction for this evaluation proper project life cycle was develop in order to show the sustainability of the project. Glasgow will be hosting common wealth game of 2014 which have the same importance as London hosting the Olympic of 2012.
The basic reason for developing the project life cycle was to evaluate the opportunities that might lead the management toward more prosperous development of the tourism industry as well as the economy and this event would help the management to establish such base for the local population which might contribute to the enhancement of the image of the Scottish region. In order to bring this thing into reality strategies have been defined and developed in order to convert Glasgow as a reality for the opening ceremony of the Common wealth game 2014.
One of the basic objective of this event was considered to represent Glasgow as a multicultural city which represent an image that Glasgow has no ethical or cultural dilemma that would prevail any negativity to the expatriates; this objective have created a robust based for the Scottish committee to won bid. Another integral part of this event was to up lift the social, cultural activities of the Glasgow common wealth game; this might be the perfect time to represent Glasgow as a peaceful region from all aspect and this image would help to attract many tourists as well as the foreign investor.
Common wealth game project life cycle diagram have been mentioned in order to under the worthiness of the particular project. Project life cycle is sequence of different actions or activities that leads toward the defined goal or objective it is very clear that this project is associated with the opening ceremony of the common wealth game held on Glasgow on 2014. Regardless of the other step which might lead to more complex situation project life cycle started from the initiation phase which is considered to be as birth phase of the project it has been analyzed that the nomination in the bidding was the intrinsic part of the project initiation in which Scotland has standardized its objective that Glasgow will be hosting common wealth game of 2014.
After the management has decided to retain toward the development of the proposal they have develop a proper plan which might lead to win this bid for that different strategies have been used but the most appropriate one was the multiculturalism that has encourage the committee to give chance to Glasgow to host such event. Role of project manager is very crucial and critical in this project because he/she will decide weather to move toward next step or correct the measurement with the context of the long term or short term objective of the project, it has been analyzed that each phase associated with the common wealth game need to be carefully analyzed and judge.
During this project it has been analyzed that each section of the project should be aligned with the other project as well but in synchronized manner; overlapping should be avoided at all cost, but in this case it has been analyzed that actual budget has been estimated from the estimated budget this might leas to more complex situation in the upcoming year. And paying close attention to such details is the difference between doing things well and excelling as project managers. This cycle has been divided into four phase which are as follows:
Initiation/ Project generation
The first base of the project is to generate a project and in this event hosting commonwealth game was the major outcome. In the next phase Glasgow has identified different opportunities and threat associated with the project. Once the project is being approved then it will lead toward the development of the project objective.
Plan was to held commonwealth game in Glasgow in 2014 along with the spectacular opening and closing ceremony that required intensive planning which requires specific phases that need to be divided into various categories. There are few plans that have been identified while
This game would be held in the summer season in 2014, different sports activities will be conducted in this 11 days event. It has also being estimated that more than 6500 athletes along with their official will take part in this event and approximately 1 million people will see this event. Different athletic village will be established with the state of the art facilities.
Current Economic Status:
According to an economic survey in UK this has been cited that Glasgow has a very prosperous growth. Over the last ten years, Glasgow economy has grown in a persistent manner as compare to the other cities of UK. A leading economic indicator (Gross Value Added) states that in the starting of 2004 the GVA was about £12 billion while other cities has experienced an average £9 billion. This statement states that Glasgow could hold such events but it requires intensive planning and monitoring of the project.
Overall strategy for hosting common wealth game was to promote an image of Glasgow. Reason was that planned budget was more than £300 million which is quite high estimated budget which lead toward more financial constraint. Glasgow commonwealth committee was reluctant to reduce the estimated budget because reasoning was so much clear that image of Glasgow need to be restored.
It has been also analyzed that during the starting of this project budget has been increased by 81 billion, organizing committee also decided that they will increase the budget up to 500 million which is not a good sign during the recession in different part of the world
Scottish government has decided to add 30 million and 28 million pound from the reserve fund which might lead to more financial constraint but in another aspect this reserve fund might help to overcome issues such underestimated financial constraint activities.
There’s seems to be quite clear evidence that strategic partners and high-level of governance should prepared themselves for the promotion of Glasgow as the suitable place for tourism and economic structure. The project financing planning seems to be very murky it should be precise and clear; joint effort from the operational level can overcome this problem.
Another aspect of successful project evaluation would be employee turnover ratio, this thing need to be control and evaluate by the authority. Risk management should be properly evaluated because these things need to be characterized and defined.
While different planning can be seen at different level because planning is being done into two different categories first would be the strategic partners and second would be the governance body that is associated with the Olympic and commonwealth committee. Strategic partner associated with this project has been working on risk management to deliver effective commonwealth game activity in the year 2014.
The major flaw has been identified during this project life cycle is the underestimated budget this could be elicit that increased the size of the budget would lead toward more financial constraint current figure shows a trend that £ 378 million was estimated but actual figure has gone up to £279 million before 2014 which represent a valid insufficient planning from the committee. Proper proactive and reactive planning is needed in order to sustain the economic recession that is currently faced by the Glasgow council.
Barber, E and Warn, J (2005). ‘Leadership in project management: from firefighter to firelighter.’ Management Decision, 43:7/8, 1032-1039. [Online] Available at: http://proquest.umi.com (Accessed 29/11/2010).
Darmody, P.B (2007). ‘Henry L. Gantt and Fredrick Taylor: The Pioneers of Scientific Management.’ AACE International Transactions, 2007, 1-4. [Online] Available at: http://proquest.umi.com (Accessed 03/12/2010)
Graee, K, Karlsen, J.T and Massaoud, M.J (2007). ‘Building trust in Project-stakeholder relationships.’ Baltic Journal of Management, 3:1, 7-22. [Online] Available at: www.emeraldinsight.com/1746-5265.htm (Accessed on 25/11/2010).
Pillai, M.P (2006). ‘Human Side of Project Management.’ AACE International Transactions, 2006, 1-6. [Online] Available at: http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb (Accessed 25/11/2010).
Srica, V (2008). ‘Social Intelligence and Project Leadership.’ The Business Review, Cambridge, 9:2, 189-199. [Online] Available at: http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb (Accessed 20/11/2010).
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