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Approaches to Nano-Technology

Paper Type: Free Essay Subject: Technology
Wordcount: 3544 words Published: 23rd Sep 2019

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1.      Chapter 1 – Introduction        

2.      Chapter 2 – Literature Review

a.      Barriers and Issues

b.      Simple to complex

  1. Molecular nanotechnology
  2. Bottom-up approaches
  3. Biomimetic approaches
  4. Applications
  5. Approach/Methodology
  6. Conclusion
  7.  References




Nano technology is most trending in the science and engineering fields where there is competition to how smaller but powerful can a unit become to run the entire system. Nano technology, a technology in a broad sense refers to an imagination of what we can think about as very small, tiny particles like dust along with reference to all the field of terminologies we can imagine. For Example, we can consider medical field, where we know for fact the atom is the smallest of the particles but consider this all the plants animals in the bio world are made up of these atoms clubbed together forming the whole version of a plant or in case of an animal all the arteries and organs the wellbeing of these organs and internal body of animal or human body as well as ailments of a diseased body.

But the Nano technological aspect comes in when these small atoms and molecules are powerful enough to take charge of the whole body. Nano technology can be partially explained as a smallest unit that can be powerful enough to run the entire system it is responsibly attached to.

Problem Statement

One discrepancy can be seen while defining nanotechnology in different aspects of technology. There is a discussion around scaling the materials below 100 nanometer and n another one is around molecular technology that calculates on molecules. Here in this discussion the size and length limit below 100 nm can result into exclusion of all the scientific and pharmaceutical field related materials and the molecular would exclude the information technology field related materials like chips and transistors. These would be missed if the molecular structure is help to the criteria. This is where we come to conclusion that every field has its own definition for nanotechnology in their specific material and technology reference.

          Aditi Jadhav 556008


  1.              Goals listed under Nanotechnology Research Center include factors affecting and impacting various sectors like Engineering, Manufacturing of Mechanical material, Health etc.
  2.             Goals include Understanding of harm these nanotechnological development can result into specific health risks of workers involved in, by material used in development.
  3.             Proper understanding of how initial process would be trial and error while handling data in engineered material can risk into different types of damages and different management approaches to scope the risk and resources to assess this risk.
  4.             Goals also aid in epidemic related studies for workers involved in development and engineering of this material medical attentions on regular basis to keep a check on effects of exposure to material.

Research Questions

Relevance and Significance

Literature Review

Barriers and Issues

Simple to complex

Present day made science has achieved the show where it is conceivable get ready little particles to any structure. These strategies for understanding are utilized today to make a wide technique of strong arranged progressions, for example, pharmaceuticals or business polymers. This most inaccessible point raises the issue of stretching out this sort of control to the running with progressively imperative estimation, hunting down structures to gather these single particles into real sub-nuclear social affairs consolidating different atoms coordinated in a particularly depicted way.

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These structures use the musings of atomic self-gathering in like manner as major sub-nuclear science to all things considered sort out themselves into some fundamental consistence through a base up framework. Sub-atomic insistence is particularly fundamental: particles can be managed the target that a particular setup or blueprint is kept up due to non-covalent intermolecular powers. The Watson– Crick base-mixing rules are a brisk outcome of this, much equivalent to the unequivocally of an inspiration being verified to a solitary substrate, or the particular separating of the protein itself. As necessities be, something like two areas can be required to be essential and typically dazzling with the target that they make a steadfastly uncommon and supportive aggregate.

Such base up frameworks ought to be fit for passing on gadgets in parallel and be essentially more moderate than best down strategies, yet could be overpowered as the size and multifaceted

nature of the ideal social affair growths. Most obliging structures require complex and thermodynamically extraordinary methodologies of particles. In any case, there are substitute perspectives of self-party subject to atomic confirmation in science, most very Watson– Crick basepairing and drive substrate shaped endeavors. The test for nanotechnology is whether these models can be utilized to design new structures paying little appreciation to trademark ones.

                                                                                                      Bharath Kumar Ganji 557240

Present day-built science has accomplished the show where it is possible arrangement little particles to essentially any structure. These systems are used today to convey a wide combination of profitable engineered mixtures, for instance, pharmaceuticals or business polymers. This limit raises the issue of extending this kind of control to the accompanying greater measurement, searching for procedures to assemble these single molecules into very sub-nuclear social occasions involving various particles engineered in an inside and out portrayed way. These strategies utilize the thoughts of nuclear self-party to normally arrange themselves into some profitable adjustment through a base up strategy.

Accordingly, something like two sections can be planned to be correlative and ordinarily charming with the objective that they make an undeniably astounding and supportive sum.

Most useful structures require complex and thermodynamically unlikely arrangements of atoms.

                                                                                              Bharath Kumar Ganji   557240


Molecular nanotechnology

Bottom-up approaches

These appearances to prepare littler elements into extra complicated congregations. DNA nanotechnology makes use of the specificity of Watson– Crick base pairing to increase all spherical characterized systems out of DNA and awesome nucleic acids.

Methodologies from the sector of “conventional” substance amalgamation (Inorganic and natural aggregate) likewise skip for making plans atoms with very an entire lot characterized shape (e.G. Bis-peptides).

All the more with the aid of manner of and large, atomic self-get collectively appears to make use of mind of supramolecular technological knowledge, and sub-atomic acknowledgment particularly, to cause unmarried-particle segments to absolutely mastermind themselves into a few beneficial versions.

Nuclear electricity magnifying device pointers may be accomplished as a nanoscale “compose head” to shop a concoction upon a ground in a coveted example in a way called plunge pen nanolithography. This device fits into the bigger subfield of nanolithography.

Sub-atomic Beam Epitaxy takes into interest base up gatherings of substances, maximum pretty semiconductor materials frequently finished in chip and processing packages, stacks, gating, and nanowire lasers.

Top-down strategies

These look to make littler devices with the beneficial useful resource of utilizing big ones to coordinate their collecting.

Numerous advances that slid from regular strong USA. Silicon techniques for production chip are currently in shape for making highlights littler than one hundred nm, falling under the which means that of nanotechnology. Mammoth magneto resistance-built difficult drives as of now in mild of the market in shape this portrayal, as do nuclear layer affidavit (ALD) techniques. Diminish Grünberg and Albert Fert had been given the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2007 for his or her disclosure of Giant magneto resistance and commitments to the area of spintronics.

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Strong Strategies can likewise be implemented to make gadgets called nanoelectron mechanical frameworks or NEMS, which is probably identified with microelectron mechanical frameworks or MEMS. Centered particle bars can in particular expel cloth, or perhaps maintain cloth while plenty less pricey forerunner gasses are related in the period in-between. For example, this method is completed mechanically to make sub-a hundred nm segments of material for research in transmission electron microscopy.

Nuclear strength magnifying tool tips can be implemented as a nanoscale “compose head” to keep an oppose, that is then trailed with the useful resource of a scratching approach to evacuate fabric in a nice down approach.

Functional techniques : These appearances to create factors of a coveted usefulness without appreciate to how they will be accumulated. Attractive accumulating for the mixture of anisotropic super para magnetic materials, for instance, as of past due added attractive nano chains. Atomic scale hardware attempts to create particles with precious virtual houses. These may additionally additionally moreover moreover furthermore need to then be implemented as single-atom additives in a nano virtual gadget. For a precedent see rotaxane. Engineered concoction techniques can likewise be done to make artificial sub-atomic engines, as an instance, in a intended nanocar.


Biomimetic approaches

Innovation itself is experiencing a reevaluation nowadays. The word never again causes firecrackers in the NASDAQ. In any case, it has numerous new faces. It’s the science and the advancement that are making development and openings in assorted fields like nanotechnology, biometrics, sun-powered vitality, and biotech. Furthermore, it’s the off-camera wizardry that is creating gadgets to enable the old to keep up their freedom longer. While these ventures aren’t safe with the impacts of a drowsy economy, their long-haul development potential appears to be sufficiently able to offer open doors for occupation searchers.


Viruses, programmers, spam, and wholesale fraud are expanding, and biometrics offer a conceivable arrangement. Fingerprints, hand geometry, the iris, voice, and facial highlights are altogether being utilized in personality confirmation frameworks by governments and partnerships, with unique finger impression acknowledgment making up 67% of these applications. One TechCast member portrayed biometrics as an “executioner application,” and another said that “the showcase is set to detonate.” The innovation isn’t flawless, yet “multi-modular” frameworks consolidating at least two strategies are nearly idiot proof. TechCast estimates most security frameworks will essentially utilize bio-measurements by around 2010, give or take two years.



Medicine: Researchers are creating tweaked nanoparticles the span of particles that can convey tranquilizes straightforwardly to unhealthy cells in your body. At the point when it’s culminated, this technique ought to incredibly decrease the harm treatment, for example, chemotherapy does to a patient’s sound cells.

Electronics: Nanotechnology serves a few responses for how we may grow the abilities of hardware gadgets while we minimize their load and power utilization.

Food: Nanotechnology is changing a few parts of nourishment science, from how sustenance is developed to how it is bundled. Organizations are creating nanomaterials that will have any kind of effect in the essence of sustenance, yet in addition to nourishment security, and the pharmaceutical advantages that provender conveys. Power modules: Nanotechnology is being utilized to lessen the expense of units utilized in energy parts to deliver hydrogen particles from fuel, for example, methanol and to enhance the richness of films used in power plans to separate hydrogen shreds from different gases.

Chapter 3: Approach/Methodology

Responsible development technology concept, (here after referred as RDT) is widely spread its importance across may development industries and it got its own identification through many citations and representation in popular press releases, government publications, industrial reports, but the definition of the responsible technology development is not common across, it transforms as and when, where it is developed. Despite many industries specific definitions, the common goal of the responsible technology is to contribute the maximum possible assets and minimum liabilities to the society and user of the technology. So, this implies that the responsible technology development needs maximum understanding of what technology that we are actually developing and what could be the adverse effect can cause if such developed technology is misused and should have grate commitment towards assessing the risk involved in the technology and mitigate the possible negative effects in most efficient way.

Coming to the concept of nano-technology development, there are many ideas and concepts of the nano-technology development now a days, which made the emergence of the few guiding societies like NNI [National Nanotechnology Initiative] which is U.S government research and development organization, in which around 20 departments and independent agencies that are working to gather r toward a common goal of “a future in which the ability to understand and control matter at the nanoscale leads to a revolution in technology and industry that benefits society.”( NNI, https://www.nano.gov/about-nni) . Its main agenda can be classified into 3 major areas. NNI guides to the development agencies or organizations of the nanotechnology to follow at least all three points namely, 1. Impact on environmental, health and safety. 2. Enhancing the education industry by developing the products and technology for schools and educational industries, like book publishers, technical training programs, etc., 3. Research well in terms of the societal, workforce, technology, legal, economic, and ethical implication of the developing technology.  INI through it s committee will analyze the RDT by focusing on the environmental health and safety, and publishes it results for future references for any development group.


Chapter 4: Findings and Summary of Results

Here are few recommendations for RDT of the nano and emerging technologies:

Like national nanotechnology initiation couple more governing and guiding authorities should come in place to monitor and streamline the process of technology development in the industry of future oriented technologies namely stem cell technology, bioengineering, etc.

Have to ensure the responsibility of the nanotechnology development is not limited to any particular development group, it is the collaborative responsibility of stakeholders of development group and stakeholders across the society who holds the responsibility to ensure the environmental safety, biological balance, ethical and legal issues that may arise in the process of  technology development. So, have the idea posted in all available technology and social responsibility forums to discuss dig the technology tool’s pros and cons with diversified people’s prospective. Doing this will give us all the positive and negative effects of the technology that is getting developed. And we as a development group can work towards improving positive and mitigating negative effects.

Learn from the past mistake s and learnings of the other engineering technologies that are encountered in their journey development process. Few groups are trying to produce a driverless cars and drone/flying cars with the help of emerging technology called Artificial intelligence and machine learning, which helps computers to impose intelligence by learning with the streams of events with all the probable conditions. There is the case where couple of experiments went wrong due to the fact the permutations of the events, time and space are enormous.

Chapter 5: Conclusion 

Coordinate with the guiding agencies like National Nanotechnology Innovation, National security and intelligence agencies, and regulating agencies of Environmental health and safety sectors. So that we can follow all h proper guideline and regulation to come up with useful out come with minimal negative effect and great uses for the society and Nation. However there is an additional burden to do pre setup frame work to identify the nano practice possibilities among atoms, things, air, soil, and/or in every other living beings. Need to have the complete setup for the whole process.


  1. Mueller, A. (2018). Biomimetic Nanotechnology: Senses and Movement. Berlin: De Gruyter.
  2. Patlak, M., National Cancer Policy Forum (U.S.), Institute of Medicine (U.S.), & Micheel, C.
  3. (2011). Nanotechnology and Oncology: Workshop Summary. Washington, D.C.: National Academies.


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