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One Step Flow Theory Media Essay

Paper Type: Free Essay Subject: Media
Wordcount: 3120 words Published: 1st Jan 2015

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1. The ‘one step flow-theory’ is a communication process in which the mass media communicates directly to the mass audience. (without the message is being filtered by Opinion Leaders) for example: gossip magazines.

2. Their opinion is not influenced by other factors, the message they receive from the mass media is not filtered by the OL. There is only one source. The audience is passive.

3. The influence off the mass media on the mass audience is too big, the audience only gets influenced by the mass media and not by other factors, so they don’t know the other side of the message. Preventing the mass media to have a big influence on their audiences.

4. A stage between two different stages. Things outside the media that have an influence on other people’s behaviour. (between sender and receiver)

5. ‘You want something because other people have it’ = an intermediating factor

Fragment 2

1. The two step flow theory means that the message that the mass media tries to convey to the audience is reduced by the influence of opinion leaders

2. An opinion leader is an active media user who interprets the meaning of media messages.

There are two types of leadership: monomorphic and polymorphic. Monomorphic means that a person is an opinion leader in one field but a follower in another field. Polymorphic mean that a person has more information about a certain topic than the average consumer has  and has the requisite background to understand the information. This person can still be an follower in another field. Opinion leaders pass on their own interpretations in addition to the actual media content.

3. Sometimes a message can be interpret in a wrong way. This can influence the audience in a bad way.

4. Yes, everyone who uses the media interprets the meaning of media messages in his own way. And some people pass their own interpretations trough to other people.

Fragment 3

1.People could now decide how they wanted to use the media and how to interpret it. They can now use the media in their own interest.

2.the uses gratifications theory is an approach to understand why people actively seek out specific media for gratification purposes. The theory shows how users search for media that will not only meet a given need but also knowledge, social interactions and diversion . The audience wants to satisfy their needs with the media.

3.People use mass media in order to enrich their general knowledge, to be in touch with the latest news. Secondly, people need diversity which media can offer, for example watching TV, reading newspapers or listen to the radio.

4. they just research data, it’s not really a theory.

Fragment 4

1. Agenda-setting theory: is the ability of the media to influence certain topics. What the people think about.

2. There are three types of agendas: public agenda setting (in which the public’s agenda is the dependent variable) media agenda setting (in which the media’s agenda is treated as the dependent variable) and the policy agenda setting (in which elite policy makers’ agendas are treated as the dependent variable).

Intrapersonal agenda: between a small group.

3. Television, because television has a bigger influence on people.

NEWSPAPERS: in a new papers you can choose the articles that you want to read, and the television just provides everything.

4. The credibility of the newspapers is much higher than television. ” There is no proof of a causal connection between the media coverage and the public awareness ” (Sharon) (Severin, 2010)

Fragment 5

1. Mass media plays an big role in people their lives, direct and indirect. People use the media every day for several reasons, for example relaxing and socialize. There is no proof for this theories. It’s hard to do research on this. The research method is not valid.

2. The characters of the mass media are really expanded over the last few years, because the role of the media is becoming more and more important for many people.

3. Because of the fact that there is so much information, it’s more difficult to influence people. ‘Socrates: the more you know, the more you know how little you know’


The One-Step Flow of Communication, W. Lance Bennett and Jarol B. Manheim (PDF-file).

Stephen W. Littlejohn; Karen A. Foss (2009). Encyclopedia of Communication Theory, Volume 1. SUA: Sage Publications

Nancy L. Harper (1974). Human Communication: Core Readings. New York: Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data.

James D. Watson (1998). Media Communication: An Introduction to Theory and Process. New York: PALGRAVE

Part B explanation part (task 9)


Situation 1


factual information: the handbrake is not released

Self-revelation: the woman needs to release the handbrake to be able to drive

Relationship: the woman should know she needs to release the handbrake

Appeal: release the handbrake


factual information: the handbrake is not released

Self-revelation: she knows she has to release the handbrake before she can drive away, the man’s comment makes her feel that she has doubts about her driving skills

Relationship: you think my driving skills are terrible

Appeal: He should drive if he knows it better

self revelation: expressive

Relational = emotional message, reaction between sender and receiver

Situation 2

Sender = Els

factual information: Martin has not showed up at the PBL session

Self-revelation: she is annoyed that he is not there

Relationship: He needed to let her know where he was

Appeal: he will be there in about 10 minutes

Receiver = Martin

factual information: Knows he is too late for the PBL sessions

Self-revelation: Els calls him, he tells her where is he is at the moment

Relationship: know that he should have told her where he was

Appeal: he will be there in about 10 minutes

PBL task 11 Renée Borreman, MMO1R,284165

What is the difference between freedom of speech and freedom of expression?

Freedom of speech: Freedom of speech is the right to give information and opinions/ideas . with words.

Freedom of expression: is the right includes the freedom to have opinions, and to receive and impart information and ideas. (without using it). With acts.



What are the most important treaties and conventions on freedom of speech and human rights within the European Union?

-The Universal Declaration of Human Right: gives guaranteed rights

as the right to life, the prohibition of torture, slavery and forced labour, the right to liberty and security, the right to a fair trial, respect for private and family life, freedom of thought, conscience and religion, freedom of expression, freedom of assembly and association, the right to marry, the right to an effective remedy and the prohibition of discrimination. (articles: 12 etc.)



What is said in article 10 of the ECHR? (European Convention of Human Rights)

Article 10 of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) holds the right to freedom of expression:

Article 10 – Freedom of expression

1. Everyone has the right to freedom of expression. This right shall include freedom to hold opinions and to receive and impart information and ideas without interference by public authority and regardless of frontiers. This article shall not prevent States from requiring the licensing of broadcasting, television or cinema enterprises.

2. The exercise of these freedoms, since it carries with its duties and responsibilities, may be subject to such formalities, conditions, restrictions or penalties as are prescribed by law and are necessary in a democratic society, in the interests of national security, territorial integrity or public safety, for the prevention of disorder or crime, for the protection of health or morals, for the protection of the reputation or rights of others, for preventing the disclosure of information received in confidence, or for maintaining the authority and impartiality of the judiciary.


How is freedom of speech monitored on the Internet?

The government uses Internet Censorship to control the publishing of information and access of information on the internet. They use the censorship based on moral, religious, social and business reasons, to prevent intimidations or out of fear or other consequences.

The extent of Internet censorship varies per country. Some countries do not have so much Internet censorship, other countries go as far as to limit the access of information such as news and suppress discussion among citizens.


What are the limitations on freedom of expression in the European Union? (Mention libel and slander and secrets of state) Give an example of a country where this is different.

The right of freedom of expression cannot limit the privacy, honour and reputation of people. It is also not allowed if its conflicts with other right or values. These limits are order to protect the rights or reputations of others, national security, public order, public health or morals. http://www.article19.org/pages/en/limitations.html

Greece: the 14th article of the Constitution of Greece states that it is an offence for the press to insult the President of Greece and the Christianity and any other religions recognized by the state. ” THE CONSTITUTION OF GREECE” (document)

Definition Slander and Libel:

”Libel is any Defamation that can be seen, such as a writing, printing, effigy, movie, or statue

Slander is any defamation that is spoken and heard.” Gossip magazines.



http://www.echr.coe.int/NR/rdonlyres/BA2CB2C0-E837-4253-A1B5-5BC87D84AABE/0/DG2ENHRFILES182007.pdf PDF file about Freedom of Expression in Europe.

http://hub.coe.int/SG%20 This is the site of the council of Europe.






PBL task 12 Renée Borreman, MMO1R, 284165

1.What exactly does copyright mean?

Copyright protects the authors work against reproducing in another medium without the authors permission. Copyright protects literary works, dramatic works, music works, artistic works, recordings, broadcasts and layouts/ typographical arrangements.

literary works: novels, instruction manuals, computer programs, song lyrics, newspaper articles and types of database

dramatic works,: dance or mime

musical works

artistic works,: paintings, engravings, photographs, sculptures, collages, architecture, technical drawings, diagrams, maps and logos

layouts or typographical arrangements: to publish a work, for a book for instance

recordings of a work, sound and film

broadcasts of a work.



2.Who is the author in British copyright law?

The author is the creator of the many types of works. You need permission from the author to use someone else’s copyright work.

the copyright sections of the Copyright Designs and Patents Act 1988 (as amended) PDF document(1.53Mb)


3.What is meant by works in copyright law?

By works in the copyright law is meant the original work, websites and the internet, written work, theatre/music/artistic work (including photographs), spoken words and performers and TV+film



Case 1: The authors are Micheal or David and the copyright owner is Micheal.

Case 2: Yes, Rudi’s letters are in the meaning of the copyright act.

Case 3: No, mark does not need permission from Stenden. He does not write it for Stenden.

Case 4: The copyright holder is Mark. Producer + director. Depends on the country. Law in film says producer + director.


http://www.ipo.gov.uk/home.htm (source from the module book)

PBL task 13 Renée Borreman, MMO1R, 284165

1. What is the influence of inflation and deflation on the economy? (explain the terms)

Inflation: inflation is an overall increase of the general price level. The effect of inflation is that you can buy less for the same amount of money, the purchasing power drops/decreases.

Deflation: deflation is the overall decrease of the general price level. The purchasing power will stagnate, because people will wait for the prices to decrease even more. Deflation can eventually lead to recession.

Consuming price index to measure the inflation.



2. What options does the government have to influence the economy?

The government is guiding the general part of pace of economic activity, trying to keep steady growth, high levels of employment, and price stability.

-Taxes: By adjusting the tax rates (fiscal policy) and managing the money supply and control the use of credit, it slows down or speeds up the economy growth.

-Interest rates: controls the money supply and encourages companies and individuals to borrow more and buy more.

– Government spending: Money that is been spent by the government must be accounted for increasing taxes, increasing debt, or reducing spending by the government.




3. What is public investment ”crowding out” of private investment?

Crowding out causes interest rates to rise, and to reduce investment spending. This means that the increase in government spending crowds out the investment spending. (the growth of the government ) The borrowing of large amounts of money by the federal government.


4. What are the different kinds of interest rates and what is the role of the ECB and how do they influence the economy ?

The most common interest rate is the Prime rate: most of the times used by banks when they make short-term loans into large borrowers. The prime rate is accustomed to reflect changes in the big market.

Other interest rates are: discount rate, commercial paper rate, treasury bill rate, treasury bond rate, corporate bond rate.

The role of the ECB is to keep the prices stable, (keep the inflation under control, and especially in countries that have the EURO). Another role of the ECB is to keep the financial system stable, by making sure that the financial market is properly supervised.



5. What are the benefits of foreign investment/trade? (Name the number one trading country from your home country) Mention why a country would not invest in a different country.  

-The Netherlands is the 16th largest economy of the world but depends strongly on foreign trade. Their biggest trading partner is Germany, import 17.8% and export with 24.3% in 2010.

– International trade is the exchange of services, goods, and capital among many different countries and regions. This trading is essential for the growth of the globalization. Countries that play a big part in the international trading have the power to control the world economy. Trading can have benefits for individuals, companies, and countries. (as long as goods are produced with different relative costs.)

Lower production costs


reduction political risk.

-Reasons for a country to not invest in another country is for example the political and economic situation of that country.






6. Explain/what is the economic cycle by mentioning recession and depression.

An economic cycle is a period during which a country’s economy moves from strength to weakness and back to strength. The biggest phases of the economic cycle are expansion, prosperity, contraction, depression and recession. The cycle is driven by many forces — including inflation, the money supply, domestic and international politics, and natural events.

Trying to endure the expansionary phase of the economic cycle can lead to a bubble which can increase in a downturn. Economists believe that the economic cycle will repeat itself over and over again in the future.

Depression is an even worse recession.




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