Movies industry growth wider and the industry contribute creativity, ideas, and fiction stories to the audiences but the industry have created the negative side of influences that harm the society. The purpose of the paper is to find out how the Hollywood movies create negative influences to the youth in klang valley in Malaysia. The objective of the research is to find out what are the elements that bring negative influences in Hollywood movies and the type of movies that can bring negative influences to the youth between 18-25 years old that located in Klang Valley.
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Background of the Research
Movies were invented at a time when American industry welcomed any new gadget, and inventors wildly sought patents on appliances and electrical devices. The motion picture camera and projector were two of the Industrial Revolution’s new gadgets. Movies act as the mirror of the society that creates them, movies reflect changing social values and some movies, some offer an underlying political message and some are just good entertainment yet all movies need audience to succeed (Biagi 2010, p.137).
As filmmakers Georges Méliès and Edwin S. Porter turn novelty into Art and the term “an Industry based on dreams” happened where people wish to have fantasy and unrealistic life in reality and the Movie industry has been called “an industry based on dreams” because of its creative medium and imagination (Biagi 2010, p.135). In the Information technology, the advancement of technology allows the film industry to expand widely and produce more movies in the industry that consist variety types of movies that attracted different audiences. The Theatrical Statistics Summary (2011), Global box office for all films released in each country around the world reached $32.6 billion in 2011, up 3% over 2010’s total, due entirely to the increase in international box office ($22.4 billion). Each international region experienced growth in 2011. Chinese box office grew by 35% in 2011 to become the 2nd largest International market behind Japan, experiencing by far the largest growth in major markets. According to Motion Picture Association of America (2011) Movies industry supports 2.1million of workers in the industry which generate the income of the country where boost the economic.
Movies are part of the mass media that able to drive the emotion, attitude and behavior of people where the originality of movies purpose is for entertainment, educate or provide information to the public and act similar to mass media tools that mainly for influence, motivate and provide information to the public.
However, Movies creators have created various type of movies that consist different type of values, perspective, thoughts, ideas and other values that to attract the audiences which it may be negative or positive influence to the public.
Movies are part of activities to the youth in Klang Valley in Malaysia as according to Industry: Malaysian Film Data (2012) by Finas government of Malaysia the collection and admission for all Local and Foreign Films in Cinema from January until August 2012 reached total number of 37.96 million people admission in 119 cinema in Malaysia. The total number that admission in local cinema and approach to foreign films are larger than local movies as the production are lesser compare to foreign movies. Movies are type of mass media that can create greater impact towards youth where it creates negative side of influences such as violence and negative attitude or behavior.
The development of this medium as a common mass entertainment and information source during the 1950s encountered similar concerns about potential harms, especially in connection with young audiences (Gunter, 1994 cited in Md Salleh, Mohd. Nizam, Zoheir 2009, p.142). The most important concern in the debate about violent film has been whether or not it promotes aggressive behavior among viewers most especially the young ones (Van Evra 1990 cited in Md Salleh et. al 2009, p.142).
Nowadays, many concerns have been raised about the kinds of values and attitudes that may be inculcated by exposure to certain kinds of media content, especially violence in movies (Kubey & Larson, 2005 cited in Md Salleh et. al 2009, p.143). In which the media content that consists in the movie/films have the exposure of violence or negative influence towards the youth. Through the movies, cultural can be learn and observed by the audience but it may be the cultural alliteration towards the viewer or audiences when the movies are too realistic.
For instance, school principals, mothers, and young people were surveyed for their perceptions of factors influencing home cultures among youth. The results showed that violent messages in rap music and violence in the movies are perceived as the factor among others, influencing the formative process of the teenagers (Kandakai, Price and Telljohann, 1999 cited in Semiu & Steve 2012, p.18).
To find out how Hollywood movies portray negative influence towards youth in Klang valley.
The elements or values that consists in Hollywood movies which portray negative influence or views towards the youth in klang valley.
To find out the effects on youth if they expose to negative influence of Hollywood movies excessively.
Analyze what are the effects of watching too much negative influence from Hollywood movies.
What is the negative aspect shown in Hollywood movies?
What types of Hollywood movies have negative influences?
What is the effect when expose to violent movies excessively?
The research is to help the youth to understand better on movies when they engage with it and help then to identity what are the possible negative influence or violent that may happen. It may be useful and guide information for the schools, colleges or parent in the future for references.
This research is conducted among youth in Klang Valley that will limit the target audience to Malaysians who are 18 – 25 years old. Besides that, our target audience will be more focus on both male and female students. The scope that focuses on 18-25 years old is because we targeted youth that highly approach to films or cinema for movies. The research will be conducted by distribute 100 questionnaire to the male and female targeted public in Klang Valley.
Definition of Terms
According to Merriam Webster dictionary (2012), means the act or power of producing an effect without apparent exertion of force or direct exercise of command. In the study, influence means that the movies that cause changes in terms of attitude or behavior towards the targeted public such as youth whether are negative changes or positive changes in the attitude and behavior.
As stated in Oxford Dictionary (2012), means a change which is a result or consequence of an action or other cause. In the study, effect means that the results of the cause that bring means and change the youth attitude or behavior.
As stated in Merriam Webster Dictionary (2012), means a young person or a young male and female between adolescence and maturity. In the study, youth means that the public which is age between 18-25 years old which is young yet is accessible to majority types of movies such as violence, sexual and others.
As stated in MacMillan Dictionary (2012), means the part of the US film industry that is based in Hollywood, California, and has a reputation for making very successful films that cost a lot of money to produce it. In the study, Hollywood Movie means the movie that produce by westerners which consist of cultures difference in Malaysia and either brings positive or negative influence to the youth society in Malaysia.
As stated in the Integrated Transport information system (2012), Klang valley consists area of Klang, Shah Alam, Cheras, Ampang, Damansara, Subang and Sunway area which the area under territory of Kuala Lumpur and Selangor. In the study, means that area of population within the area of Kuala Lumpur and Selangor.
2.0 Literature Review
2.0.1 Factors contributing to media violent and aggressive behavior
In this chapter, four different journals chosen based on its content that the most relevant to this research topic. Most of the journal that referred is based on western context but there are few journals that study on local or Asian context. Many studies have been conducted in the area of media violence and its effects on the young viewers.
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The journal prepared by Md Salleh , Mohd. Nizam and Azarian (2009) Effects of Watching Violence Movies on the Attitudes Concerning Aggression among Middle Schoolboys (13-17 years old) at International Schools in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia a publication journal of www.eurojournals.com .The journal major focus has been the relationship between media violence and aggressive behavior. The purpose of the study was to contribute to the state of the research by predicting and comparing attitudes about aggression among adolescent boys on the basis of their exposure to violence in movies. The survey targeted Two hundred and sixteen adolescent boys aged 13-17 were selected from seven international schools located in Kuala Lumpur which similar target audience with this research.
The journal research touches few aspects that relates to the media violent which are the amount of media violent exposure and the parental involvement which cause media violent. In the research, the researchers found that there are heavy and light media violent viewer and have different dimension of attitude on aggression. The results shown that the strongest predictors of attitude in adolescent boys were affection toward movies, movie viewing habits, and the adolescents’ movies preferred.
As supported by the journal of Anderson, Berkowitz, Donnerstein, Huesmann, Johnson, Linz, Malamuth, Wartella (2003) which entitle THE INFLUENCE OF MEDIA VIOLENCE ON YOUTH, the major focus of the research is violent television and films, video games, and music. Anderson et al. (2003, p.81) claim violent television and films, video games and music reveals unequivocal evidence that media violence increases the likelihood of aggressive and violent behavior in both immediate and long-term contexts.
As stated in Anderson et al. (2003, p.81) journal, recent large-scale longitudinal studies provide converging evidence linking frequent exposure to violent media in childhood with aggression later in life, including physical assaults and spouse abuse. Because extremely violent criminal behaviors (e.g., forcible rape, aggravated assault, homicide) are rare, new longitudinal studies with larger samples are needed to estimate accurately how much habitual childhood exposure to media violence increases the risk for extreme violence. Which linkage with the previous researcher Md Salleh et al. (2009) finding which the amount of media violent exposure determine whether heavy or light media violent viewer is.
The media violence produces short-term increases where aggressive actions portray and observer tries to imitate the violent behavior. The long-term effects is through several type of learning process where the observer get used to the negative behavior and support with the negative emotional response which cause violent.
In the Anderson et al. (2003, p.81) studies, the researchers suggests some avenues for preventive intervention but the extant researchers argue that no one is wholly immune to the effect of media violence. Yet it can be reduced by decrease the exposure of media violence which will reduce the aggression and violent of the viewer or youth.
As reviewed in Anderson et al. (2003, p.82) research, the consistent finding from such randomized experiments is that youths who watch violent scenes subsequently display more aggressive behavior, aggressive thoughts, or aggressive emotions than those who do not. which is supported by Bushman & Huesmann (2001), Comstock (1980), Geen (1990), Geen & Thomas, (1986), Huesmann, Moise, & Podolski (1997). In which the supporting statement are linking to the purpose of this research.
The key empirical studies of the third journal the accumulated body of research is consistent and clear that television violence causes an increase in violent and aggressive behavior. According to the third journal by Huesmann & Taylor (2006, p.393), Media violence creates threat to public health which leads to an increase in real-world violence and aggression. The research shows that fictional television and film violence contribute to both a short-term and a long-term increase in aggression and violence in young viewers which supported by Anderson et al. (2003) research and linkage to this current research of media violent in movies towards youth. The relationship between media violence and real-world violence and aggression is moderated by the nature of the media content and characteristics of and social influences on the individual exposed to that content. Although it is depends but it strong enough to bring the effect and place the effect in the category of known threats to public health especially the youth.
Walter (1999, p9) said Hollywood movies often seem to suffer from over-worked and over-done clichés and stereotypes, but these also serve their purposes. This means that Hollywood movies often create greater impact of stereotypes that not often happened in the society. As according to Roger (1994) cited in Chen (2006, p.1) stereotypes are codes that simplify reality so that it can be conveyed more easily to others. Stereotypes can be positive, negative or mixed so it can be negative influences or positive influences.
2.0.2 Type of Negative influences in Hollywood movies
As stated in Louis Harris and associates (1987) cited in Malamuth & Impett (2011, p.270) found that 64% of U.S. adults think that television encourages young people to perform sexual activity in support of Howard (1985) cited in Malamuth & Impett (2011, p.270) in a study on 1,000 adolescents in U.S. revealed that television is their greatest cause of become sexually active. The television programmed content and frequency does contribute the influences of sexual activities in youth as supported by Greenberg (1994) cited in Malamuth & Impett (2011, p.271) an average of three sexual acts per hour across all types of television programming was documented and the basis of an estimate of 1 hour of viewing per evening on weekdays and 2hours on weekends.
As calculated by Greenberg (1994) that a viewer would be exposed to 27 sexual acts per week, or minimum of 14,000 per year. It stated that television programming which include variety of categories such as entertainment, movies, news, and dramas and the highlighted is that movies as the part of the entertainment in the Television programming and its way to attract audience and advertisers. As television in U.S. show Hollywood movies more than other countries where Hollywood originally from western and the statistics shown that television have greater negative influences of sexual content and cause mislead to the young people about sexual activities and cause sexual active.
As stated by Johnson et al. (2002) cited in Gordon & Stefano (2009,p.678) shows that survey respondents who watch more violent media are substantially more likely to be involved in self reported violence and crime. As according to Gordon & Stefano (2009,p.678). The research done by Md Salleh et al. (2009) shown the same as the researcher Johnson et al. (2002) where adolescence behave violent when they approach to violence movies which lead to the negative attitude and behavior of the adolescence. As stated before by Anderson et al. (2003,p.81) the media produce short-term increase aggressive actions portray and observer tries to imitate the violent behavior and that lead to negative action and influences to the adolescence.
The selected journals that emphasize on the media violent on movies and television which support the initial of this research where the researchers have find out the reason and the cause of the media violent towards public and youth where the initial research is to conduct it among the Malaysian in Klang valley which have similarities with the first journals researchers target but yet it is different. The results shown by the three researches above shown that media violent is mainly cause by movie whether is it long term or short term. The contribution of this research is to find out the types of negative influences and effects that consist in Hollywood that mention or stated by the previous researchers. As mentioned by previous researchers, sexual and violence are the negative aspects in Hollywood movies but the stereotype still in confusion as it may be positive stereotype or negative stereotype which it may not consider as the negative influences.
2.1.1 Social Cognitive Theory
Social Cognitive Theory is best defined as learning by observing. It is also known as vicarious learning and doesn’t necessarily mean learning through own experiences. People in nature are easily persuaded and influenced and feeling attached or having common interest may lead observers to learn the behaviors watched. However, the choice whether or not to adapt the behavior is still in their hands.
According to Bandura (1986 cited in Bryant and Thompson 2002, p.67) Social cognitive theory embraces an interactional model of causation in which environment events, personal factors, and behavior all operate as interacting determinants of each other. Bandura (1986) said the one major difference between human and lower animals is our advanced ability to process information. This theory closely relates to the journals discussed due to the implications that exposure to sexual television programs greatly initiates sexual behavior among adolescents.
In Bandura’s studies showed that the more a person is exposed to movies or television that contain media violence, the higher the risk it affect the viewer’s violent and aggressive behavior .Therefore, this theory proves that learning a behavior is as simple as observing. This show the power of mass media has on influencing its viewers.
2.2.2Cultivation Effect Theory
The second theory is Cultivation Effect Theory developed by George Gerbner and Larry Gross, it is almost similar to Social Cognitive Theory however differs as it focuses on the long-term effects of television. This theory was developed due to the concern of the effects of television programming or movies. This theory is a great explanation of the causes of initiation of violent behavior through exposure to television programmed or movies. According to Gerbner et al. (2002) the Cultivation Effect Theory means that viewers who spend more time watching television or movies have the higher tendency to see the real world in ways that shows the most common and repeated messages of the television or movie world as opposed to those who watch less television or movie, but are otherwise comparable in terms of important demographic characteristics.
Gerbner et al. (2002) assume that Cultivation theory in its most basic form, then, suggests that exposure to television, over time, subtly “cultivates” viewers perceptions of reality. This cultivation can have an impact even on light viewers of television, because the impact on heavy viewers has an impact on our entire culture. Television is a medium of the socialization of most people into standardized roles and behaviors. Its function is in a word, enculturation”
One of the most influential content of this theory is that the constant exposure to television or movie, cleverly “cultivates” viewers’ perceptions of reality. This explains the behavior adopted by the adolescents simply by excessive repetition on these media and cause negative or positive influences.
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