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Mainstream Media In Malaysia

Paper Type: Free Essay Subject: Media
Wordcount: 1995 words Published: 16th May 2017

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The mainstream media in Malaysia has always been perceived as a key pillar of change for the most of the government policies. Nowadays, media play a role as helping to widespread information content, news coverage, ideas, opinions, and entertainment to gigantic audiences. According to the definition, media is defined as a channel that able to transfer messages to reach broad audiences in term of mass communication.

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Furthermore an array of media is available such as print media, broadcast media, Internet and etc. Print media is a medium by using printed materials to publish the information which is include newspaper, books, magazine, and broachers. In opposite, broadcast media is using electronic to send message that include devices of televisions, radio, CDs, and the other. Lastly, Internet also considered as one of the effective and latest technology that allows users to access to the web in anytime and anywhere you can. Internet contains emails, webpages, blogs, graphics, video download and social networking that could reach globally and nationally.

As such government tends to use the variety of media to spread 1Malaysia concept around the globe and encourage Malaysia citizens to build a peaceful and harmony world. Advertisement is one of the effective ways in promoting, so government chooses to publish through the advertising that exert direct and indirect influence to increase the awareness of Malaysia citizen. Besides, they can also easily expose to the media content which is related to 1Malaysia concept in webpage, blogs, graphics and video as well. Government highlights the important of 1 Malaysia concept by repeating the advertising and audiences tend to remember the messages.

The goal of 1 Malaysia concept is aim to achieve unity among different races, religions, beliefs and culture. At the same time, government needs media to approach to citizens and communicate towards the concept of 1 Malaysia. The Malaysia Government has putting much effort in promoting the concept by using mainstream media such as playing patriotic songs and Rukun Negara through television and radio. During Merdeka day, newspapers have also published wide range of topic about political and our multi racial country. Those publish materials not only helps to strengthen our national unity, the audiences also affected by the media after they saw the slogans in advertising.

As a conclusion, government use mainstream media as a powerful tool to encourage the acceptance of the concept by the citizens of Malaysia. 1 Malaysia concept can be strengthens and generate desired outcome.


Limited effect theory

According to the Paradigm Shift, media were conceptualized as rarely have powerful and has direct influence towards the audiences. Media might have certain effect, but it is indirect influence as audiences always been affected by the people who surrounding them and opinion leaders. They can be influenced by variety factors such as individual interpretation, personal status, environment, education and etc. Besides, Lazarsfeld and Hovland also argued that effect of media towards audiences is limited and they disagree what implied in mass society theory. Lazarsfeld had developed a research study to measure the media influence and proof that media is powerless on shaping public opinion. And this theory is defined as “Limited Effect Theory”. It shows that there are minority of people were behaving vulnerable and tend to rely on mass media.

Lazarsfeld and Hovland try to have better understanding towards media so they developed a media studies. They wish that media could be control well and use it in a proper way. But unfortunately, they realized that media were not as powerful as implied in mass society theory. Lazarsfeld believes in inductive approach which is start from empirical observation and develops a theory. From his research observation argued that if media is powerful, the propaganda is tend to reinforce and influences the voter’s candidate choice. And the results shows that majority of people are influences from others who surrounding them more than the media content.

Thus, the gate keepers act as the opinion leaders that persuade and lead those opinion followers’ decision. They are the one who interpret the media information carefully and share their own view with the others. This also referred as two step flow. Based on this theory, opinion leaders own a characteristic such as active, aggressive, heavy media user and talkative which is usually tend to shape public opinion. In opposite, opinion followers are those who tend to follow.

In conclusion, media is powerless in term on influence viewer’s opinion. For example, we are educated since we are young, so we are able to interpret the message from media and choose what to believe or not to believe. Media is lack powerful to convert viewers mind and beliefs as they got ability to analyze the media content, but not being vulnerable towards the manipulation of media and propaganda. Moreover, viewers also will base on their own different interpretation and influences to select whether to trust the media. Some of them might receive it differently, some of them might been influenced by their group membership as well.

Opinion and views

From my personal opinion, I am being neutral for the usage of mainstream media to promote 1 Malaysia concept. Media is able to effect audiences but with limited influences. The influence that occurs is indirectly which is based on individual differences. Government publishes about the important of unity among racial through television, radio, newspaper or Internet, but viewers can choose to receive the information or reject the messages. Promoting 1 Malaysia concept is not only relies on mainstream media to achieve the desired outcome; Malaysia government should have to consider individuals from different background, status, education and etc.

Audiences have been educated since young, so they have held strong beliefs and certain mind set. Mass media is not so easily can change their attitude and behaviors in a short period of time. In fact, audiences are not vulnerable or just been force to receive the information from media. They can interpret and analyze, they will also get influenced through the interactive from the others as well. For example, they might receive the message from the 1 Malaysia advertising, but they are influenced by people who are surrounding them.

Discussion 2

Diffusion of Innovation

In another discussion, I will base on the diffusion of innovation theory which is explained how innovations are introduced and adopted by various communities. This theory was successfully developed by Everett M. Rogers and he extended the two step flow theory. There are 5 stages of info diffusion theory which is including innovators, early adopters, early majority, late majority and laggards.

The adoption process usually begins from innovators. They are people who are knowledgeable; well- educated and tends to be aware about certain information from mass media. In this situation, when government use mainstream media to promote about 1 Malaysia concept. Innovators are more aware about the message and interprets based on their own knowledge. They expose to the media content, and understand about the functioning of 1 Malaysia concept. Moreover, they also gained education information towards the advertising such as Rukun Negara or patriotic songs; they will be behave more alert and remember the messages.

Next, the innovation process will be adopted by a small group of people which is known as early adopters. They are the individual who are interested and try to seek for more details information after they saw the advertising. Most of the time, people tend to follow when the early adopters adapt to the innovation. In such, early adopters will take some necessary action after they exposed to the 1Malaysia advertising or media content. They will try to increase the unity among different races by giving commitment, organizing open house activity or be more aggressive to participate in patriotic events.

Besides that, early majority is located in the third stage of process. At the same time they also referred as an opinion leaders. Early majority usually observe and refer to the innovators decision than only make the last decision. They own a characteristic such as active, aggressive, talkative, credibility and etc, so people tend to follow and believe the decision made by early majority when they share their views and opinions. Additionally, early majority always play a role as encourage and influence people in decision making. Based on the 1 Malaysia concept, early majority tend to persuade the opinion followers to believe and accept the the 1 Malaysia concept t that published by Malaysia government. They have the ability to motivate the others and successfully generate the desired objectivity of 1 Malaysia concept. For example, opinion leaders might encourage people to participate themselves in Malaysia patriotic events, and opinion followers will agree and follow his decision.

During the fourth stage of innovation process, those opinion followers are tend to believe on the opinion leaders by giving full commitment. Opinion leaders will share their opinion, views, and past experiences to shape the public opinion. In this case, they are usually popular among the group, or an influential people. For example, opinion leaders convey the 1 Malaysia concept and sharing based on his own opinion. What he speck out is trustworthy and credibility, in such peoples are influenced by the opinion leaders and they will support and believe in his decision making.

Lastly the end of the adoption process is the laggards. They also referred as the late majority. They can either be very traditional or more isolated in social system, as they not dare to take the risk and believe the information which is publish in mass media. Compare to the others, they usually take much longer time to adopt innovation and make changes. Based on the usage of mainstream media to promote the 1 Malaysia concepts, they might be the last group of people that try to move on and make changes. For example, they just try to expose and participate themselves in Malaysia patriotic events while the others already joined for many times.










Media manipulation often involves government or corporate propaganda and spin. Sometimes organizations and governments can feed fake news or politically or ideologically slanted stories to broadcasters which depict them as quality news items and journalism.

“In this way, the media can truly serve as a catalyst for development,” he added.

patriotic spiri

to more strongly emphasise national unity and efficient governance. It is a principle that intends to guide and build a united and progressive nation. The concept is aimed at inculcating the spirit of togetherness and a sense of belonging among Malaysians, regardless of race, religion and creed.


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