Interviews with chosen age groups about their media experience during the period of adoption of new media in 1990s
Referring to the origins of the radical changes in the development of the media and the social and political life of the country as a whole, related to the transition of the reform of the Soviet system, it should be noted that the transition of Russian journalism was met with sincere understanding and sympathy. Creative people could not help but sympathize with the atmosphere of free thought, pluralism of opinions, rarely available in obtaining political information all that accompanied the first steps of restructuring.
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It is a system of political and ideological control by the state, a crisis of supreme power and “crisis bottom” came to the fore and determined all the decisive change of life media. No major shifts in the economy and, above all, political reform, the growth of political freedom in society affects the early years of establishment and development of a new printing system. It must be noted that the press itself has a strong impact on the overall government policy.
In the period from 1985 to 1990 journalism with almost no legislative base “tried to implement the information revolution.”
Changes in the relations between the state and the media in this situation were inevitable. On the one hand, the media have become much less manageable. At the same time long before August 1991 Soviet periodicals were divided into two main groups, depending on the publications related to the Communist Party as the leading force of the state. Being Support to the party and the government, communist press was provided (“The Truth”, “Glasnost” and the local party newspaper). Democratic press (“Arguments and Facts”, “News”, “Spark”, “Komsomolskaya Pravda”), on the contrary , formally criticized the authorities.
State influence in the media remained significant. Back in June 1990, it was decided to establish All-Russia State Television and Radio Broadcasting Company. In May 1991, Russian television aired.
After the victory of Yeltsin in the elections this course was pronounced with even more importance. Ultimately, it led to the creation of a fundamentally new system of media. First of all, the Russian government has taken positive steps to establish control over the most influential electronic media. In particular, it is already August 21, 1991 Russian President Boris Yeltsin issued a decree “On mass media in the Russian Federation.” In accordance with the Decree of the All-Union Television and Radio Company (Radio and Television of the USSR) was transferred to the jurisdiction of the Government of Russia.
Following this, began the process of transferring to the Russian authorities in the submission of information agencies. In September 1991, on the basis of the information agency “News” (IAN) and the Russian Information Agency (RIA) was created by Russian Information Agency “News”. Presidential Decree of 22 August 1991 RIA “News” was transferred to the Ministry of Press and Information. In 1993, RIA “News” has become public information and analytical agency. TASS (Telegraph Agency of the Soviet Union) became the Information Telegraph Agency of Russia (ITAR-TASS) in January 1992, after the collapse of the USSR .
To a large extent the attention of society and journalists themselves at this time was focused on general political issues, to the confrontation of different political forces. Given the fact that in the period under review, the media played a crucial role in politics, providing a huge impact on the public consciousness, it must be emphasized that for its part, the authorities have deepened the schism media on political grounds.
The political face of the press is determined depending on the ratio of the government and President Yeltsin. In 1992â”€1993 years the Russian leadership was divided into two opposing center of power â”€ executive and legislative, soon on this topic has been allocated four groups press. â”€ The first government media (“Russian news”), the second â”€ press organs of the Supreme Council (“Russian newspaper”), the third â”€ democratic press (most independent from government agencies editions of the “News”), which are of varying severity, but supported the action government â”€ fourth patriotic press (“Soviet Russia”), sharply criticized the regime of the president and the government. Media in this situation are in the role of one of the main prizes.
In the context of liberalization of public life in the 1990s is clearly a trend of rapid growth in the number of newspapers and magazines. According to the Ministry of Press and Information in 1991, when the Soviet Union collapsed in 3353 Russia came out of the magazine and newspaper 4863. In 1996, there were 27,000 registered. It is clear that the number of registered newspapers and magazines are not equal to the number actually coming editions. But even accepting this amendment, it is safe to say that in five years the total number of periodicals rose, at least two or three times.
However, circulation was falling. It should be noted that the basis of a collapse of circulation, were several reasons. The first of them â”€ long economic crisis, lower the material standard of many millions of Russians and the associated decline in fact â”€ reader demand for print periodicals. In addition, the crisis has worsened the financial and economic situation of newspapers and magazines. Sharply risen in price Printing, Paper has risen, the cost of postal services for delivery of publications to readers has grown several times.
Despite the significant drop in circulation, newspapers and magazines continue to play an important role in the lives of Russians. Periodicals read nearly 99% of the population.
The emergence of a large number of new publications contributed to the emergence in the late XX century qualitatively different technologies for their manufacture and production. Globalization occurred satellite networks transmit information. New technology allowed the media are hundreds and thousands of kilometers from the epicenter of events connected to him, to be immediately aware of them in the central and crucial details.
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During these years, there were created the relatively inexpensive technical capabilities, which made process of making paper much faster and cheaper. The computer technology developed quickly and at a high level imposed the newspapers and magazines. The offset printing improved with its ability to produce multi-color and multi-edition. All this was not in the majority of Russian editions and printers even at the end of the 1980s.
There are several examples of journalists from the different generations and their thoughts on trends in the development of modern journalism in general.
Genrikh Borovik – writer, playwright, journalist, a prominent public figure, political scientist, one of the most prominent figures of modern Russia.
When he was asked about whether or not you think that the time of international journalism goes, he replied: No. There are incompetent journalists, they were before, that just chasing sensation, lie or so sharply adhere to certain positions that do not take any arguments that would be contrary to their position. It is harmful. But we have a lot of journalists who are well versed in the situation in the world.
The second example, Alex Pimanov – Russian journalist, producer, director, television presenter and politician.
In an interview, he said that the problem is that we, unfortunately, further and further away from professional journalism. Come to journalism immediate, sensational. Very quickly get into the trend, falling into some information flow, in some trendy, let’s call it so. There is, unfortunately, a lot of people who are going to make a career at all costs, and in our area too.
They are hungry for fame and struggle, provoke, go on some things on the verge of falling, especially without thinking about the consequences. For example, I always teach their journalists that before you say something, look before you leap and think about it. It is time. And second, never out with everything you know, until the very end. I do not believe that if someone somewhere once posted something revelatory, it immediately attacked. It does not happen. It is clear also that this is some kind of a long story.
And if you ask the young man that what is the media for him in general, the answer is clear – Internet. Now all young people haven’t read any newspapers and the magazines are leafed of it beautiful pictures. As Internet, even if you take more concrete, the social network has replaced all other media. We can get any information only by activating our Facebook or twitter page.
So, at the beginning of the 1990s, that is still in the period of the Soviet Union, the new system starts to develop the Russian media. Signs it is clearly “read” in a variety of forms. With countless new media, radio stations, TV channels of diverse content and sense â”€ entertainment, advertising and so on. Along with the print media developed broadcasting.
New historical conditions of life of the Russian Federation has become an important factor in the formation of a new type of mass journalism. It was necessary to determine the place that was to take the press in a democratic society approves. The process, which began in the early 1990s, has led to some changes in the social structure of the press, television, radio and more meaningful understanding of needs of the audience, promote new forms and methods of media. Change and social, spiritual, and professional guidelines of journalism.
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