Tobacco Advertising and its impact on the society
|✅ Paper Type: Free Essay||✅ Subject: Marketing|
|✅ Wordcount: 2033 words||✅ Published: 1st Jan 2015|
Stanford University Medical School researchers recently conducted a survey in which they found that point of sale tobacco advertising greatly influences teenagers’ desire and willingness to smoke. According to the survey, teenagers who frequent establishments where this type of advertising exists are more than twice more likely to try smoking than those who do not visit them. The research also showed that the children between the ages of 11-14 are most likely to be influenced by it. Point on sale advertising includes convenience stores located near schools. Clocks, floor mats, cardboard displays, and other forms of advertising are all used in stores where many young people shop. The researchers also found out that the rate of cigarette use among teens has dropped significantly, from 36.4 percent of high school students in 1997, to 19.5 percent of high school students in 2009. But experts are concerned that the rate of decrease is beginning to slow, and that something must be done. This article will help us to analyze that how point of sale tobacco advertising influences the young people towards smoking and convincing and effective this sort of advertising can be.
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End Film Industry’s Tobacco Advertising
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR
January 10, 1997
In a letter written to an editor of a newspaper revealed the outraged audience after viewing the unnecessary image of a smoker in films. The viewer wrote that it appears to be another act of apparent bribery by the tobacco industry. The viewer also wrote that Hollywood should refrain from promoters of tobacco. If the tobacco industry had its way, we’d probably be seeing Mickey Mouse and Minnie Mouse puffing away on cigarettes in children’s cartoons. What better place to start? This shows that showing smoking as a cool way of life also displeases the people and has some negative impacts but this also raises a question the question that how does this affect the younger generation? This unique way of advertising seems to work wonders for the tobacco industry. Even when I see someone smoking in the movie I feel a sudden intense urge to smoke. This leads to another aspect of our research concerning the ethics of advertising and how tobacco industry uses film industry to promote smoking.
Current Trends in Cigarette Advertising and Marketing
Ronald M. Davis, M.D., M.A.
N Engl J Med 1987; 316:725-732 March 19, 1987
This article talks about the trends in cigarette advertising and marketing. According to the Federal Trade Commission, total cigarette advertising and promotional expenditures reached $2.1 billion in 1984. From 1974 through 1984 cigarette advertising expenditures accounted for 22.3 percent, 7.1 percent, and 0.8 percent of total advertising expenditures in outdoor media, magazines, and newspapers, respectively. The proportion of total cigarette advertising and promotional expenditures devoted to promotional activities has increased steadily, from 25.5 percent in 1975 to 47.6 percent in 1984. The proportion of expenditures for cigarettes yielding 15 mg of “tar” has increased substantially. The study of these marketing trends will assist is in identifying and predicting patterns of cigarette use and the influence of advertising and other effective techniques.
Tobacco industries targeting of youth, minorities and women.
Professor Vernellia R. Randall (2001).England
The article basically mentions various ways in which tobacco companies have been advertising to young people through its marketing campaigns. The article contains text in which the author mentions the famous Marlboro man and Joe Camel campaigns initiated by tobacco companies in order to promote smoking cigarettes amongst young people. These campaigns have been extremely successful and fruitful for tobacco companies. The expenditure on advertising and promotion by tobacco companies is tremendous. Unfortunately the returns due to the expenditure on such campaigns are directly increasing the revenue generated by tobacco companies. There advertising is concentrated on youth oriented magazines and various media directed towards the youth.
The American national survey on drug use estimated that due to such campaigns, 4000 youths try their first cigarettes even though they are fewer than 18. Children and adolescents consume more than one billion packs of cigarettes each year.
The interesting fact mentioned in this article was that Kenneth Warner estimated that to remain profitable tobacco companies need to recruit 5000 smokers each day.
Apart from targeting the youth tobacco companies aggressively target the minorities. Generally Mexicans, African Americans, Middle easterners have higher frequency of smokers amongst them. Since 1996 the average number of smokers amongst African Americans has doubled. Cigarette ads are more frequent in magazines like the magazine “Jet and ebony” which is targeted towards the African Americans.
A survey in the United States shows that each year more than 178000 women die due to smoking. This is a very serious concern for health experts. Women tend to have more fragile lungs as compared to men so the risks against diseases caused by smoking are higher amongst women. Since 1990smoking amongst high school girls has increased from 28% to 34%. The marketing techniques targeted towards women include slim cigarettes and exotic flavored cigarettes. Ads for such cigarettes feature pastel and water colors.
Tobacco reference guide
Moyer D. (1999). Austria
The article the author criticizes the tobacco firms for targeting children. It states that its deeply immoral for the government to permit these firms to advertise cigarettes to children and women. The ads by these firms aim to convince children to start smoking as its something that increases the social image of people. These ads also suggest that its cool to be suicidal, and dangerous stunts are demonstrated in such ads. Teenagers are much more likely to respond to heavily advertised cigarette brands. Like the Marlboro man and Joe Camel were created as role models for people. The interesting part in this article was a statement by the author which says that cigarette ads convince teenagers and the youth that they are slim, they are sexy, they are sociable, they are sophisticated and they are successful if they smoke. This is very true as we all know how we associate cigarettes to our social life.
Marlboro Man May Get Boot from Auto Racing
August 26, 1997|By LARRY LEBOWITZ Business Writer
This article is about the settlement of $ 11.3 billion for the removal of removal of tobacco advertising at all sports arenas. This means that Philip Morris’ Marlboro brand will not be allowed to sponsor the Marlboro Grand Prix of Miami Indy car race. RJR Nabisco’s Winston brand will not sponsor the granddaddy of all stock car circuits, NASCAR’s Winston Cup at Daytona International Speedway and no more of those race cars, those “rolling billboards” featuring cigarette ads. So if you’re an auto racing fan, you will be disappointed. In recent years we have noticed that all cigarette brands have been removed from sponsoring any kind of sports in some of the countries. After reviewing this article we will try to find the impact of this on the tobacco industry and its consumers.
Impact of tobacco advertising and promotion on increasing adolescent smoking behaviours
Chris Lovato, Gilat Linn, Lindsay F Stead, Allan Best
published in Issue 4, 2008
Tobacco industry has been heavily criticized for directing there marketing activities towards young nonsmokers and encouraging people to smoke, this criticism has always been denied by the tobacco industry.
A research was carried out to find out if the tobacco advertising converted nonsmoking adolescents into regular smokers.
Those who were included in the research were 18 or younger and were not regular smokers. The sample size for the research was 12000 baseline nonsmokers.
The results of the research supported the critics and those who were exposed to tobacco advertisements more frequently via magazines turned out to be regular smokers in the future.
Outdoor tobacco advertising in six Boston neighborhoods. Evaluating youth exposure.
Pucci LG, Joseph HM Jr, Siegel M. (1998)
This article states that the outdoor tobacco advertising usually near children schools and playgrounds have a deep effect on the children. All this tobacco advertising pollutes the innocent minds of the children and as a result they are likely to try cigarettes or other tobacco products.
The objective of this research was to determine effect outdoor advertising has on the children in surroundings. In this case it Boston and its six neighborhoods. The researcher conducted a cross sectional a survey which included people with different ethics and cultures and socio economic classes. The result was that the children exposed to outdoor tobacco advertising in six Boston neighborhoods is most likely to have an influence on youth and the researcher states that the only way to stop it is by eliminating tobacco advertising. The advertising strategies that are used by the tobacco industry are designed by professional marketers which usually base their advertising strategies on the human physic and it is almost impossible to escape or not to get effected by these strategies.
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Tobacco Advertising and Consumption:
Evidence of Causal Relationship
Joe B. Tye, Keeneth E. Warner and Stanton A. Glantz (19987)
This research paper talks about the relationship between tobacco advertising and its consumption. If the relationship between these two variables is positive then two millions new smokers and the 5.5 percent of smokers which try to quit and mostly fail can justify the relationship between these two variables as a positive causal relationship. According to this it can be estimated that the tobacco expenditure would be around 2 billion dollars per year. The researcher used various methodologies to determine the effect of tobacco advertising, according to a qualitative research it was found out that there is a positive causal relationship between tobacco advertising and its consumption. The researcher also found out that the children are the ones who are mainly influenced and affected by tobacco advertising. Thus this evidence justifies the hypothesis that tobacco advertising increases its consumption.
Does Tobacco Advertising Target Young People to Start Smoking?
Evidence from California
John P. Pierce, PhD; Elizabeth Gilpin, MS; David M. Burns, MD; Elizabeth Whalen, MA; Bradley Rosbrook, MS; Donald Shopland; Michael Johnson, PhD
In this article the researcher tries to determine whether tobacco advertising influences children younger than 18 to smoke. The author research included 24296 adults and 5040 teenagers. The researcher a telephone survey and compared it to survey which was conducted four years earlier. In both the surveys random digit dialing was used. The researcher tried to determine whether the perception of smoking had any relationship with age. Whether the pattern of market share in age and sex groups followed the pattern of perceived tobacco advertising and also if changes in market share harmonize with the changes in advertising as perceived by the youngest age group. The survey revealed that perception of advertising was high in young smokers. The market-share patterns in different age and sex groups follow any perceived advertising patterns and changes that occur in market share as a result of advertising influences mainly younger smokers. So it was established that cigarette advertising influences children to smoke.
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