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The impact of brand awareness in brand choice

Paper Type: Free Essay Subject: Marketing
Wordcount: 4568 words Published: 1st Jan 2015

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Conumers chose a brand they recognize before an unfimiliar brand there is not much research about of the effect of brand awareness on breand choice thats why this was investigator one of the objectives of research will be to determine the differcnces in buying behaviour between the chosen cultures research questions will important since they form the problem that would be answer.

the question format will reflect the research questons this made it possible to observe which product the students and other persons related to different professions recognized most and hich product they recognized least.

2. Introduction

we have chosen this topic because brand awareness has great impact on brand choice.due to the increase in globalization and homogenization of of consumers preferences in the world global branding has become more widespread. That is why it is important to be aware of the culture obstacles in marketing. by the time of globalization more people explore the world through travelling to distinct and undeveloped to developed places. although the consumer become more homogeneous it may be difficult to find the brand that they use in their home country. While studying the literature, it was found out that there is not much research about the affect of brand awareness on choice. most research is focused on more complicated knowledge structure such as attitude and brand image. Therefore, we wanted to do research on brand awareness and how it effects consumers.

2.1 Proposed title

A title to study the impact of brand awareness in brand choice

2.2 Background of the study

I have chosen this study due to its great importance . branding is one of the most important strategy in the marketing task. When a company launches its new product that it is very necessary that they advertise it properly or in other words created the awareness of the product in the mind of the customers. According to the Egyptian study in 4000 B.C the awareness was started when the builders craved their name on the buildings they build and this thing show the work done by that builder. Similarly if customer is not fully aware of all the facts than he will not purchase your product. This study is also important because the country like Pakistan where people have no much knowledge about the product this study is very necessary. Nowadays, people have a demanding lifestyle. They do not have time to stop for a moment and feel their own will. They want to be as efficient as possible; want to save as much time as possible. They feel that time is not enough and that they do not have the required energy. All the different choices buyers make when purchasing can be stressful and the possibility and demand on how to act and what to say can be an extra burden. Sometimes, consumers want someone to give them a proposal of a product, or just take a product among many, without even bringing the product into line with their needs.

3 Literature Review

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Variables

3.3 Brand awareness & Brand choice

3.4 Purchase Decision

3.5 Summary

3.1 Introduction

Due to the increasing globalization and homogenization of consumers’ Preferences in the world, global branding has become more widespread.

That is why it is important to be aware of the cultural obstacles in marketing

Of the brand. By the time of globalization more people explore the world through traveling to distant and undeveloped places. Although, the Consumers become more homogenous it may be difficult to find the brands that they use in their home country. Then the consumers are placed in a position when a dilemma appears and they have to choose between unfamiliar brands and brands they recognize.

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While studying the literature, it was found out that there is not much research about the effect of brand awareness on choice. Most research is focused on more complicated knowledge structures such as attitude and brand image. Therefore, we wanted to do research on brand awareness and how it affects consumers’ choice. The purpose of this dissertation was to do a research about brand awareness; to see to what extent brand awareness matters when purchasing for the first time in an unfamiliar culture. According to the theories, consumers choose a brand they recognize, before an unfamiliar brand. If consumers do not choose according to theories, what are the factors that have a greater effect on the buying behavior?

3.2 Variables that can effect brand choice

There are some variables that can effect the brand choice theses are


Market channels

Quality of product


It is one of the important factors. It is important because it brings awareness in the mind of customers. Awareness focused on internal state of consumer . through awareness of brand consumer search his or her internal state that whether he or she needs that product or not . for example if we consider the example of mineral water than it is from the company who produce awareness in the mind of customers and consumer thinks that this company provides healthy water which is more important for the health because it is upto the standards . now all the time when he or she will buy the product he will prefer the product of that company. So in this way we can say that how much importance advertisement has on product choice. Awareness may be focused on internal state such as feelings or on external events such as sensory perception( awareness – Wikipedia , the free encyclopedia,10-16-2005) Marton and booth (1997)gave good examples of awareness people have some early perception about the product and they choose it according to their perception so there should be proper advertisement for a proper awareness. There are some plans that what company should do during its advertising:

Setting advertisement objectives

Advertising budget

Develop proper advertising strategy

Create advertising message

Advertisement can be done through different ways these are as described below:



Direct mail





If advertisement and promotion support a constant position in a market than it is consider a strong brand(Aaker,1991). Advertising can also communicate through marketing and free samples in the stores(Hollensen,2004). Understanding how advertising affects consumers involves an understanding of

The basic process by which advertising affects consumers and leads to

brand awareness, brand image, brand consideration, brand choice, and sales,

How the effects of advertising are spread out over time,

The role of 3 different advertising media (for example, TV versus print advertising), how differentially efficient these vehicles are, how their interaction may lead to synergy effects

The role and impact of competitive advertising.

For example, for a manufacturer of desktop

PCs we might distinguish between spending on television advertising,

radio advertising, newspaper advertising and vertical trade advertising. All

this activity reaches some consumers at some point, and they will or will not

pay attention and process these messages. This then may lead to a number of

advertising effects.

Three types of effects are possible:

(1) cognitive effects,

(2) affective effects

(3) behavioral effects.

Specific examples in these categories

are “brand awareness” (cognitive), “brand positioning” (cognitive,

affective), consideration-liking (affective), and “brand choice” (behavioral)

respectively. The extent to which consumers who are exposed to advertising

will go through these stages will depend on their ability and motivation to

process the information and messages offered to them (Petty, Cacioppo and

Schumann, 1985). Awareness has been found to be a necessary condition

for advertising effectiveness. For example, when consumers who are unfamiliar

with a product category have to choose between a well-known brand

and an unknown brand they are more likely to choose the well-known brand.

Whether behavior such as brand choice and purchasing is preceded by brand positioning and brand consideration depends on the context. For example,

In a low-involvement low-risk category it is not uncommon for sales to precede

any affective response. In situations where involvement and risk are higher

it has been shown that brand differentiation and consideration precede sales.

It is beyond the scope of this article to discuss how the context can impact

the order in which the various effects are hierarchically related. We refer to

the article of Vakratsas and Ambler to find additional details on this.

A second component describes if and how the impact of advertising on the

various metrics (such as awareness, consideration, and purchase) is spread

out over time. It is generally assumed that a specific advertisement that

appears this week will have an effect not only this week, but also next week,

and its effect will gradually decrease over the following weeks. This can be

due to memory effects or it can be the result of media being consumed on

more than one occasion. An example of how advertising can work over time

can be found in Buzzell and Baker (1972), who found in one case that when

the advertising was cut by 40% sales was not affected in the first month

after the advertising budget was cut, but sales decreases were felt during the

second and third month after the budget cut. Image and brand positioning

(re-positioning) effects may take longer to change as a result of an advertising

campaign than changes in brand awareness or sales.

Time-delayed effects of advertising are called carry-over effects and the

type and duration of these carry-over effects may vary across brands and

product categories. Leone (1995) re-analyzing two large meta-analyses studies,

finds that after adjusting for aggregation bias the 90% duration interval

for advertising averages between six to nine months. In some cases the longterm

effect of advertising can dramatically outweigh the short-term effect

of advertising. Taking the long-term effects of advertising into account can

Make the difference between having a positive return on advertising investment versus not.

A third component involves the role of different media. Different media

such as television, radio, and magazines are used and consumed differently.

Different media have a different short-term impact (see Doyle and Saunders,

1990). As Berkowitz, Allaway, and D’Souza (2001a,b) argue, different shortterm

effects will likely result in memory traces of different strength. Stronger

memory traces decay more slowly than weaker memory traces and hence it

is likely that the way the effects of various media are spread out over time is

different and that the overall impact of different media will be different. For

example, a TV ad may have a relatively big impact in the period it appears,

having its impact quickly fade away over the subsequent periods whereas a

magazine ad could have a lower initial impact, but show a sustained impact

over a number of periods because the magazine can be read over time, picked

up again, used by other people, and so on.

A fourth component involves the effects of competitor advertising spending.

If the advertising spending of any direct competitor increases or decreases

significantly in relation to a firm’s own advertising this may substantially

alter the effectiveness of the firm’s advertising. For example, Aaker

and Carman (1982) cite an example involving two brands.

The advertisingof brand

1) had a positive effect on its own sales but had no effect on the sales

of brand

2.)The advertising of brand had a negative significant effect on

the sales of brand but had no positive effect on its own sales.

There has been much empirical modeling relating advertising expenditures

to sales. Some marketing generalizations are available in this area. It

is beyond the purpose of this paper to review previous studies ((see Leone,

1995, and Lodish et al., 1995).

After selecting a proper way of advertising a company should evaluate advertising that what kinds of effects advertising has on products and should see whether this activity or strategy leads towards improving or decreasing the sales of a company.

Marketing channels

Marketing channels have also greater impact on brand choice. If there will be some proper market channels than the consumer will get a lot of benefits from the product in a short time. He or she does not need to consume a lot of energy in reaching the product . strong marketing channels mean a strong connection with the customers . there should be no complex channel for marketing a product the product should be easily available to the consumer in

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the most proper way. If consumer need any product than it’s a company responsibility to launch such a proper channel that consumer can get benefits easily. before going into the market the company or organization should do proper research about the market that means they should properly know the needs of people that what people want in different situation and at different locations. Then there should be marketing intelligence.

Marketing intelligence is a systematic collection of reports and analysis about competitors(Philip kotler 1987). So through this a company can have an edge over its competitors and can develop a better product and best strategies as compared to its competitors. Similarly online research is also one of the best methods to know about the market through this a company can arrange some survey or telephonic interview(Armstrong 2001). This can also be done through internet that what consumer want and in what condition and on what place. Through this a company can arrange some pre strategies before launching a product in the market and can get extra benefits from its product. so it is important that company design proper marketing channel with or without intermediaries to attain extra benefits from its designed products.

Quality of product

Quality of a product is also another reason for a customer to choose a brand . Quality belongs to the product perspective of a brand identity(Uggla 2001). There is also a concept of perceived quality that how consumer see a product and what kind of perception they have in their mind about the product(Aaker ,1991). Perceived quality makes the consumers satisfied which leads them to purchase a product which leads them towards the loyalty(Lin & Chang 2003).Quality of a product also reduce the risk which is in the minds of customers(uggala,2001). People now a days perceive quality through different approaches one of the approach is the price approach which is one of the important factors in today’s world. People assume that a product with high price will give them some extra benefits and will be the best. similarly some people perceive that the product which has high demand has great impact on consumer mind and consumer will only buy that product which has high demand and demand can be increased through different starategies one of the strategy is the promotion starategy because promotion increase the demand.

Now if we talk about the price than It is possible to use price as a reason for brand choice in two ways:

seek the lowest price to avoid financial risk


seek the higher price to gain product quality

(Macdonald & Sharp, 2000). Sunderland (2000) states that three factors are important for which product the consumers will choose in purchasing every day products: price, place and brand. The place is often given when it comes to every day products since they all can be found in the supermarket. Explained by Aaker (1991), an analysis of frequently purchased, relatively low-priced consumer products, price was consistently found to be a strong quality indication; nearly as strong as brand name. When Chivas Regal raised its price, it became a quality cue while the product itself remained as it was. The higher price was followed by an increasing sale. If a person lacks the ability or motivation to evaluate the quality of a product, price will be more relevant. In general, a higher price leads to increased relative perceived quality.

3.3 Brand awareness and Brand choice

The stronger the brand awareness in the mind of a consumer the stronger will be the brand choice. As we have described earlier that there are different variables like marketing channel should be proper there should be proper advertisement and the quality of the product should be good now these are the factors that can build a strong image of a brand in the mind of consumers now we can say that if there will be a proper marketing channels which mean the product is easily available to the consumer than they will easily choose that product and similarly if there will be proper advertising and the quality of the product will be good than the choice of that product will be easy for the customer and he will purchase that product . In general, awareness describes peoples’ perception and cognitive reaction to a condition or event. Awareness does not necessarily imply understanding as it is an abstract concept. Awareness may be focused on an internal state, such as an instinctive feeling, or on external events such as sensory perception (Awareness – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, 10-16-05). Marton and Booth (1997) give good examples of awareness: People have earlier experience of a certain situation and are aware of that. They are also aware of who they are, the background to the circumstances, where being located as well as the emotions to the place, what time of year it is and what day it is, and also what to do the rest of the day. Even though, there is awareness of everything at the same time, the intensity varies. Peoples’ awareness is reshaping its structure constantly, and what we call awareness is the sum of the individual’s experience. So it is possible to do one thing while still be aware of many other things. Brand awareness is the capacity of consumers to recognize or remember a brand, and there is a linkage between the brand and the product class, but the link does not have to be strong. Brand awareness is a process from where the brand is just known to a level when the consumers have put the brand on a higher rank; the brand has become the “top of mind” (Aaker, 1991). so here we can conclude that what is the importance of brand awareness on brand choice.

3.4 Purchase decision

Purchase decision can be defined through a different perspective it depends upon those variables that have described above if we see that a quality of a product is good and it fulfill all the requirements than we will select and purchase that product (Ugalla,1992) similarly the best quality attracts a lot of customer towards the product and he can easily make his decision to buy that product(Aaker,1996).

Advertisement is also one of the important factors because it creates a strong image in the mind of the customers .if there will be proper advertisement than there will be a strong image in the mind of a customer about the product(Marton,1993).similarly if the advertisement will be strong in the store than the consumer will go towards that product and his decision will be to buy the product which is more advertised(hellenson,1998) if consumers perceive the purchase of a particular offering as being highly risky and yet personally important, they will be highly motivated to extensively analyze all the available information (including advertising messages) related to the purchase (Assael, 1998; Li, 1997). This notion of

involvement leads to the general inference that if consumers have limited experience in the purchase of a particular service and/or perceive that service as expensive, they will be more involved in the purchase. On the other hand, if consumers have considerable experience in the purchase of a service and or perceive it as inexpensive, they will be less involved in the purchase.

Model of Brand choice

3.5 Summary

This diagram shows that if there will be the positive advertisement and the marketing channel will be proper similarly the quality of the products will be positive than it will leads towards the brand awareness and brand awareness will lead towards the brand choice. In the case all the things will be negative than it will leads towards the negative or no brand awareness and this thing will lead towards the brand rejection. According to theory, consumers choose a brand they recognize, before an unfamiliar brand. If the consumers do not choose according to theories, what are the factors that have a greater effect on the buying behavior? There is not much research about the effect of brand awareness on brand choice, which is why this subject was investigated. One of the purposes of this dissertation is to do a research about brand awareness; to see to what extent it matters when purchasing the first time in an unfamiliar environment.

The Study

4.1 The significance of study

this study will broaden our understanding that what is the impact of brand awareness In brand choice. since there is no proper research about this impact so it can bring a lot of changes while doing some planning. It will elaborate some facts that:

what is the importance of advertisement?

what is the importance of marketing channel?

what is the importance of quality?

How brand awareness leads towards brand choice?

How people make different buying decision?

4.2 The theoretical framework

This research will be utililizing the following theory to build its conceptual framework:

. Brand equity (Aaker ,2002 )

“Brand equity is a set of assets (and liabilities) linked to a brand’s name and symbol that adds to (or subtracts from) the value provided by a product or service to a firm and/or that firm’s Customers.”

Brand identity(Aaker ,1996)

“Brand Identity is a unique set of brand associations that the brand strategist aspires to create Or maintain. These associations represent what the brand stands for and imply a promise to the customers from the organization members.”

4.3 Conceptual Framework

Based on stated review of literature and theories, following conceptual framework is devised to conduct this study:

“The proper utilization of variables(advertising, quality, market channel) leads towards the brand awareness which in return leads towards the selection of the brand.”

4.4 Research questions

Main Question:

Does brand awareness leads towards the selection of the brand?

Sub Questions:

Does advertising, marketing channel and quality of a product develop brand awareness?

Does positive advertising leads towards brand awareness?

Does proper marketing channel leads towards the brand awareness?

Does quality of a product leads towards the brand awareness?

Does negative advertising , marketing and poor quality leads towards rejection of a product?

6. What factors besides brand awareness affect the choice of brand at the

first purchase in an unfamiliar environment?

4.5 Methedology

Sampling Technique and Sample:

There are two sorts of sample techniques; probability and non-probability sampling. In probability samples all cases from the population have the chance to be selected whereas in non-probability samples the probability of being selected from the total population is not known. The population will guest 50 students of different universities of Pakistan and 50 professionals from different level and different industries.

The starting point of the research will the research model. Questionnaires will hand out to the 50 students and 50 professional from different fields to see if there will be any other factors affecting the consumer behavior than the awareness, as I will point out as the main feature. I will contact the students by email and arranged meetings with them where we will hand out the questionnaires. I will chose the products in our questionnaire after reading Kapferer’s (1997). The questionnaire contained several everyday commodities because we wanted to find out what product the students recognized the most and what product most of them did not recognize. In the research only everyday commodities will investigated. According to Kotler et al., this means than the students had a habitual buying Behavior/variety seeking behavior.

4.6 Ethical Consideration

The data collected from different individual will bee kept confidential and it will be used only for research purposes. It was made clear that the participants of the research remained anonymous. The participation was voluntary. An explanation was made of how the data would be collected, and how the information would be used. We remained objective during the research (Christiansen et al., 1998).

4.7 Limitations

Because of the time limit the focus is on the best known theories in the field.

The population was limited to the students at Universities and professionals from different fields.. The products in our questionnaire only included everyday commodities since all

Students probably buy such products. Further, in the research, the only factors that were considered were the ones that had the most effect on the choice of brand.

4.8 Statistical Analysis

When I will analyzing the data from my survey the statistic computer program SPSS will be used. There will two types of scales in our questionnaire, nominal scale and ordinal scale. For example, the question about gender is a nominal scale and the questions about the importance of different factors are an ordinal scale. According to Aronsson (1999), when having nominal and ordinal scale it is only possible to calculate mode and median as central values. To calculate the spread around the median or mode only the modal percent can be used.

4.9 Results and discussion

Results of the study will be discussed to check the significance of proposed model. Further the implications of study for both theoretical and practical purposes will be discussed. Further, scope for future research is highlighted.


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