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Justification Of Selected Variables Marketing Essay

Paper Type: Free Essay Subject: Marketing
Wordcount: 1861 words Published: 1st Jan 2015

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3.1 introduction of methodology

In this chapter (3), studying and discussing about research methodology and theoretical framework will be the main target. For this purpose, justification of the selected variables, the relationship of the variables, research design, method of data collection and analysis method will be considered. Furthermore, to collect primary data the survey method has been used. It is clear that the conceptual framework of this study is taken from the indicators that are in line with the review literature.

3.2 Justification of selected variables

Customer buying behavior (independent variables) can be affected by many factors. Eight elements in packaging are identified as independent variables, and all of them are referred based on literature reviews. It includes packaging color, Background Image, Packaging Material, Font Style, Design of wrapper, Printed Information , Innovation and Ease to use.

3.2.1 Packaging color

Color is one of the most significant factors in packaging which in food industries according to the importance of the color and its role in encouraging customers not only in Malaysia but also all around the world should be considered.

Although some researchers like Rita Kuvykaite1, AistÄ- Dovaliene2, Laura Navickiene3 (2009) indicated that in Milk Packaging color does not have an important role, without the doubt in Malaysia color may play a significant task. Regarding to psychology, the impact of different colors on choosing the food has been proved.

3.2.2 Background Image

The background image is one of the factors which encourage people to buy that product. For example most parents are worried about their children’s food habits. One of the factors which inspire children to attract eating food is background image. It also can motivate people to buy and use the products because they can find the ingrediance on the background image. The most popular example of this element can be McDonald that in each of its products people can see the ingrediance. It may happened in most junk food such as fish can, Chips, chocolate, and etc.

3.2.3 Packaging Material

Mega malls, High using of cans and the keen of people for eating food in restaurants in Malaysia demonstrate that packaging material may ease some needs of customers such as keeping food out of refrigerator. Moreover for most consumers packaging material is very important because of being healthy and not harmful.

Numerous studies have attempted to illustrate the major role of packaging material (Ampuero, O., & Vila, N.;2006)

3.2.4 Font Style

There are two reasons that cause Font Style to be a considerable factor.

First it can show the types of product and second it can represent the beauty of that product. As most companies hire professional experts for doing this kind of job it is obvious that the importance of this factor is clear for them. As an interesting example for using font style for showing difference in cultures, the western font style for emphasizing that product from others in Asian Stores like Malaysia can attract people to choose this kind of product.

3.2.5 Design of wrapper

The appearance of the wrapper and its impact on people’s thought, cause most companies like McDonald and KFC pay much more attention to this matter. Most children convinced their parents to buy products with the wrapper design.

Beside that a good design helps people to find their desired product easily in the mega mall. In Malaysia most people buy their routines from mega mall, so design increasingly may affects on customer buying behavior.

3.2.6 Printed Information

Printed Information is very important in Instruction, Keeping Mode, and Expiry Date in all food categories because this kind of information is very important for the consumers. Furthermore some companies mention more information in their products for the health which encourage consumers to buy those products. In Malaysia because of specific weather and also multinationalism, most products have printed information in different languages such as Chinese, English, Hindi, and Malay which has a very good effect on their customers.

3.2.7 Innovation

One of the efficient factors in successful businesses is Innovation which is clear that its effects on customer buying behavior probably increase.

Innovative packaging has potential to add values to the products because of there are many elements are related to it. As an example any kind of innovation in previous factors can attract customers for buying that product. On the other hand in the recent period people’s interests are in using green products (green Purchasing) which this issue is in line with the Malaysian Government Policies that enforce companies and producers pay attention to concepts such as recyclability and reusability that innovation is the only way to do such a thing.

3.2.8 Ease to use

Products ease of use for example Opening Cans, easy access through Delivery, and good distribution for food are good instances for Ease to Use that according to the urban area and big size of some cities in Malaysia and also population distribution are noteable.

3.3 theoretical frameworks

The goal of this research is discovering that which factors in packaging has the significant impact on customer buying behavior. For this purpose after discovering independent variables, following framework is considered.

Packaging color

Background image

Packaging material

Customer buying behavior

Font style

Ease to use


Printed information

Design of wrapper

Independent variables

1) Packaging color 2)Background Image 3)Packaging Material 4)Font Style 5) Design of wrapper 6) Printed Information 7)Innovation 8) easy to use

Dependent variables

Customer buying behavior

Research Hypothesis

After identifying independent variables and theoretical framework, the impact of each independent variable on dependent variable should be tested. Therefore eight hypotheses are defined as following:

Hypothesis testing on packaging color on customer buying behavior:

H1: packaging color has significant impact on customer buying behavior

Hypothesis testing on Background Image on customer buying behavior:

H2: Background Image has significant impact on customer buying behavior

Hypothesis testing on packaging material on customer buying behavior:

H3: packaging material has significant impact on customer buying behavior

Hypothesis testing on Font style on customer buying behavior:

H4: Font style has significant impact on customer buying behavior

Hypothesis testing on design of wrapper on customer buying behavior:

H5: Design of wrapper has significant impact on customer buying behavior

Hypothesis testing on printed information on customer buying behavior:

H6: Printed Information has significant impact on customer buying behavior

Hypothesis testing on innovation on customer buying behavior:

H7: Innovation has significant impact on customer buying behavior

Hypothesis testing on ease to use on customer buying behavior:

H8: Ease to access color has significant impact on customer buying behavior

Data collection method

primary data

Since primary data are used for this research, 150 questionnaires are distributed in Malaysia to gather primary data. Interviews and observations will be conducted with selected consumers. And also some questionnaires should be answered online.

Target population and sample size

The population for this study is consumers who live in Malaysia. The sample consists of 150 consumers live in Malaysia. The unit of analysis is consumers live in Malaysia. A simple random sampling method is used to select the sample for this study.

Distrebution of questionnaires

Distribution questionnaires




Famous restaurants customer such as Mc donald, K.F.C, Nandose and etc


Some hyper markets such as ,Giant, Jusco, Carrefore and Tesco


Instrumentation Design

Two kinds of questions in this study are used. The fist type of question is General which including demographic questions. Second type of question is about variables such as independent and dependant. For collecting data in second type of the question there is itemizing rating scale technique, which the respondents can choose their answer between 5 choice.

5point Likert scale

Strongly agree


Neither agree nor disagree


Strongly disagree






3.6. Method of Data Analysis

According to Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient Analysis Test the reliability of the collected data from the respondents are tested. For testing the hypothesis of this study formed to proved its relationship it needs to use One Sample T-test and Multiple Linear Regression analysis.



I like the Packaging of any product/Brand.

2 3 4 5

In my opinion Packaging is attractive.

1 2 3 4 5

I purchase goods as advised by your family or friends.

1 2 3 4 5

I think the products offered by leading brand are always better.

1 2 3 4 5

I select products according to my life style.

1 2 3 4 5

I like the Color of Packaging.

1 2 3 4 5

Color of Packaging matters me in purchasing a product.

1 2 3 4 5

I like beautiful backgrounds.

1 2 3 4 5

I prefer the products package having attractive back ground.

1 2 3 4 5

The quality of packaging can save product better.

1 2 3 4 5

The product packed in high quality material is more preferable.

1 2 3 4 5

Font Styles are attractive.

1 2 3 4 5

I like creative Font Style in Package of any product.

1 2 3 4 5

Wrapper design is important in Packaging.

1 2 3 4 5

Design of product wrapper inspires me in purchasing.

1 2 3 4 5

I read printed information on the package of product.

1 2 3 4 5

I evaluate product according to printed information while


1 2 3 4 5

Innovation is important for me in Packaging.

1 2 3 4 5

The innovative package can change my decision while purchasing.

1 2 3 4 5

I prefer packaging with better handling and transportation.

1 2 3 4 5

I like to buy product which are easy to open.

1 2 3 4 5

I suggest my family and friends products easy to find in market.

1 2 3 4 5

In my opinion ease to use contribute me to save my time.

1 2 3 4 5


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