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Factors That Influence Purchasing Of Dietary Supplement Marketing Essay

Paper Type: Free Essay Subject: Marketing
Wordcount: 5132 words Published: 1st Jan 2015

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Consumer behavior has a major influence in our daily life. Every human being is confronting with multitude decisions from day to day. For instance, deciding on what food to eat, what car to buy, what profession to pursue, or what movie to watch, are all influence by consumer behavior. According to Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel (2005), they defined consumer behavior as a field of study that focuses on consumer activities. It is the activities that consumer carry out when obtaining, consuming and disposing of products and services. In other words, consumer behavior reveals “why people buy”, “how, where and when they use”, and “how they dispose”. Hence, it is easier for marketers to develop effective strategies to influence consumers when they know why consumers purchase the product.

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2.1.1 Purchase Intention

Intention is defined by Ramayah, Lee, and Mohamad (2010) as a will to act in a certain way. Ramayah et al. (2010) claimed that intentions are the best predictor of planned behaviour and an unbiased predictor of action. According to Moore (1982); Luso (1975); and Page and Rosenbaum (1992), purchase intention used in concept testing with a five-point scale is the most predictive question to determine product trial. Moreover, Taylor, Houlahan, & Gabriel (1975) discovered a positive relationship between buying interest and purchase behavior. Ronteltap et al. (2007) also showed that intention to use will determine the actual adoption of innovation of the food. However, intention from respondents who have short exposure to the new product and have little knowledge about it is not a good predictor of their purchasing behavior (Duke, 1994). For instant, lack of knowledge of the new product use and benefits would cause lower score on the concept test, thus discouraging innovation for new product.

Taylor et al. (1975) discovered that all respondents who gave less than favorable answer did not actually bought the product in store. Thus, product abandonment decisions can be predicted by question about intention. Hence, they suggested that purchase intention is a useful tool in identifying “losers”. Other than that, managers are able to distinguish between those who are most likely to purchase and those who are less likely to purchase. Therefore, management can plan marketing strategies to target the segment which consist of people who most likely to purchase (Newberry, Klemz, & Boshoff , 2003).

The predictor of action in several studies is often refer to behavioural intention instated of effective behaviour, as the product is not available in the market and they are not require to purchase the product when they are participating in the survey (De Steur, 2010). Since Tropical Seaweed Dietary Supplement is still in the development stage in this study, respondents are asked on their behavioural intention. Purchasing intention is usually measure in a 5-point scale: definitely would buy, probably would buy, might or might not buy, probably would not buy, and definitely would not buy (Taylor et al., 1975).

Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) proposed by Ajzen (1991) and Fishbein (1980) which been widely use in predicting consumer behavior such as purchase intention towards organic foods (Chen, 2007), novel foods enriched with omega-3 fatty acids (Patch, Tapsell, & William, 2005), sustainably produced foods (Robinson & Smith, 2002), and use of multivitamin supplement (Pawlak, Brown, Meyer, Connell, Yadrick, Johnson, & Blackwell, 2008; Conner, Kirk, Cade, & Barrett, 2003; Conner et al., 2003) also supported that intention is a dominant determinant of behavior in the TPB research. Underlying intentions are attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control (Robinson & Smith, 2002). However, the focus on this study is on purchasing intention only.

In concept testing, Taylor et al. (1975) stated that purchase intention often determines whether the new product should proceed to the next stage of the development. In other words, does the product receive enough purchase intention to support further development. According to certain rough rules of thumb requirements for further development, a concept statement should receive 80% to 90% favorable answer and a trial product which respondents can actually use should receive 70% to 80% favorable answers in order to continue developmental work. The favorable answers would be “definitely would buy” and “probably would buy”. While a finished product with finished packaging should receive at least 60% to 70% of favorable answers in order to be successful in the market. In this study, we consider Tropical Seaweed Dietary Supplement as a product concept as it is not being tried by the respondents and the product was not in the market yet. Therefore the product concept should receive 80-90% favorable answer.

However, Schwartz (1987) stated that there may be variation in the rules of thumb requirements for different product categories as well as industries, yet there is no research on similar product category found currently to support the findings (as cited in Fraser, 1994). According to Carson et al, (2001) argued that respondents have an incentive to strategically overstate their preference during the survey conducted. This is because there is no cost to overstate their purchase intent in a hypothetical survey and the actual purchase decision will be made at a future date. Therefore, it is advisable for a new product concept to receive high favorable answer (as cited in Lusk, McLaughlin and Jaeger, 2006).

2.1.2 Awareness

O’Garra, Mourato, and Pearson (2005) claimed that most of the researchers agreed on knowledge/awareness as an influencing factor to the acceptability of a product. Prior awareness regarding hydrogen as a source of fuel for transport was found to increase the possibility of supporting the introduction of hydrogen vehicles by 12.5% in London (O’Garra et al., 2005). Other than that, Mourato, Saynor, and Hart (2004) also found that increase in the awareness of Fuel Cell vehicles and air pollution impacts will increase willingness to pay (WTP) for Fuel Cell vehicles. Pessemier and Wilton (1979) cited that increased levels of information regarding the electric car will increase consumers’ knowledge about it, thus can better predict the market share (percentage of people who are willing or intent to purchase) of the product (as cited in Moore, 1982). Nevertheless, it is not a good prediction of adoption level.

As for food-based products, Bower, Saadat, and Whitten (2003) had also discovered that consumers who are concern about their health and knowledgable in nutrition tends to have higher purchase intention for fat spread with a proven health benefit label. Besides, De Steur et al. (2010) mentioned that knowledge is the most important factor in determining the Willingness To Accept (WTA) and Willingness To Pay (WTP) for Genetic Modified food. In addition, Byun et al. (2009) found that the purchase intention of food irradiation increased after the exposure of education regarding the benefit of food irradiation to the respondents (women) in Korea. In this study, all information channels (video, book, and lecture) worked effectively in increasing purchase intention. In other words, consumers’ negative attitude towards food irradiation decreased and the positive attitude increased after the education. Therefore, a hypothesis can be derived from these studies, where a positive relationship between awareness/knowledge towards the product with purchase intention can be obtained.

H1: Awareness towards seaweed will influence consumer purchase intention towards Tropical Seaweed Dietary Supplement.

2.1.3 Perception

According to Lindsay and Norman (1977), perception can be defined as “the process by which organisms interpret and organize sensation to produce a meaningful experience of the world” and it serves as a filter between the external (objective) and internal (subjective) stimuli of the consumer. Perception also determines consumers’ preferences, choices and attitudes (Verbeke, 2002, p. 31). Messina, Saba, Turrini, Raats, and Lumber (2008) stated that differences in consumers’ perceptions and consequently in preferences were influenced by various factors, including culture differences across countries. Consumers’ general attitudes and perception are also shaped by previous experiences, and eventually affect consumer acceptance towards new food (Ronteltap, van Trijp, Renes, & Frewer, 2007).

According to Rozin, Pelchat, and Fallon (1986), they found that psychological properties of the product influenced food choice more than physical properties of products (as cited in Yeung & Morris, 2001). One good example of psychological interpretation of product’s properties that influences the attitudes and behavior of consumers to purchase a food product is perception of food safety risk. Perceived needs can also strongly predict behavioral intention to purchase rather than affective and/or cognitive attitude (Messina et al., 2008). For example, Warnick, Dearden, Slater, Butron, Lanata, and Huffman (2004) found that the perceived need for supplements and ability to obtain vitamins and minerals will determine women’s use of micronutrients.

According to Darby and Karni (1973), safety, sustainability, health, and naturalness act as the credence qualities of food innovation where individual consumer is unable to verify the costs and benefits clearly (as cited in Ronteltap et al., 2007). Therefore, these will lead to a generation of perceived risk and uncertainty among consumers. Therefore, when consumers’ perceived risk is high, they are less likely to purchase a product. According to the authors, they also identify several cost-benefit-related determinants from previous study. These determinants can be measure in terms of health benefits (Deliza, Rosenthal, & Silva, 2003; Magnusson & Koivisto-Hursti, 2002), environmental benefits (Magnusson & Koivisto-Hursti, 2002), sensory benefits or personal relevance. In our studies, the environmental benefits and sensory benefits is not included, as dietary supplement do not emphasize on these aspect. Besides, innovation features, such as price, convenience-related features, physical appearance, taste properties, and naturalness also influence the purchase interest.

Warnick et al. (2004) discovered that women with positive perception towards the benefits of multivitamins were 1.7 times more likely to use multivitamins supplement than those with negative perception. Bian and Moutinho (2009) discovered that perceived benefit also positively influences on the consideration of a counterfeit branded product. In addition, Ronteltap et al. (2007) revealed that benefit perceptions determined whether consumer accepts or rejects an innovation. In summary, consumer who perceives a product favorably is more likely to purchase it. This is also compatible to Ronteltap et al.’s (2007) study. They found that 9 studies have an effect on actual behavior, 10 reported on behavioral intention, and eight showed influence on attitude or related evaluative constructs. Hence, another hypothesis can be derived from this study. In this paper, the consumer’s perceptions we focus are uniqueness, convenience, benefits, safety, acceptability, natural and relevancy.

H2: Perception towards Tropical Seaweed Dietary Supplement will influence the purchase intention towards the product.

2.1.4 Socio-demographic Characteristics

Many studies revealed that consumer purchase decisions are influenced by demographic and socio-economic factors in various product (Elaine, 1999; Foote, Murphy, Wilkens, Hankin, Henderson, and Kolonel 2002; Robinson & Smith, 2002; Bower, Saadat, & Whitten, 2003; Xu, Summers, & Belleau, 2004; Goktolga, Bal, & Karkacier, 2006; Timbo, Ross, McCarthy, & Lin, 2006; Rontelap et al, 2007; Ahmad, 2010). These factors include gender, age, educational level, income, nationality, race, economic status, health status, family history’s illness and familiarity. They have significant effects on innovation acceptance and purchase intention. This is because socio-demographic characteristics will influence ones thoughts, perceptions, and preferences. However, De Steur et al. (2010) mentioned that many studies conclude that socio-demographic variable itself do not strongly explain or predict the acceptance of Genetic Modified products.

Ayranci, Son a, and Son b (2005) discovered that supplement users strongly agree on the health benefits of supplement use as compare to non-users. Therefore, they are more likely to consume dietary supplement relatively to non-users. In addition, Ahmad (2010) found that chronic illness history in family members also influences purchase intention of organic food. Duke (1994) reported that familiarity with the products and the product category makes the prediction of the purchase intention of a new product more appropriate. However, in this paper, the purchase intention of the respondents who are not familiar towards the product category (dietary supplement) is also considered as they might be the potential consumers. Therefore, respondents’ familiarity towards dietary supplement was identified with question asking them to confess whether they are a supplement user in the questionnaire. In conclusion, socio-demographic characteristics do have some influence on purchase intention. Hence, hypothesis regarding Socio-demographic characteristics can be drawn from here.

H3: Socio-demographic characteristics will influence the consumer purchase intention towards Tropical Seaweed Dietary Supplement.

2.1.5 Other Factors That Influence Purchasing of Dietary Supplement

Choice tactics is often used to reduce the amount of time and cognitive effort in decision making process. Price, performance and brand loyalty, affect, and normative factors were the factors that often influenced choice tactics in Merlin et al’s (2008) research regarding women’s decisions in purchasing children’s supplements. Therefore, these factors will determine whether a consumer will purchase and consume the product. Elaine (1999) also revealed that food trends and barriers to selecting foods for healthful diets will influence food consumption.

However, for the purchasing of organic foods in Klang Valley, Malaysia, Ahmad (2010) concluded that consumer believe of safety, healthy, environmental friendly and perceive of the worth of buying organic product will influence purchasing intention towards these product. The author also mentioned in her literature that Price and product availability are also important factors that influence purchasing intention towards organic food. However, availability of organic product information does not significantly lead to purchase intention. Krystallis and Chryssohoidis (2005) discover that quality and security, trust, senses, price sensitivity, convenience, and brand-name value are the important factors that influence food purchasing decisions of Greeks according to decreasing order. However, only “quality and security” and “trust” significantly influence the willingness to pay more for organic products.

Ares, Gimenez, and Deliza (2009) proved that brand, price, and health claim are the three non-sensory factors that influence Uruguayan consumer choice of functional yogurts according to descending order. The presence of health claims was important to make consumer aware of the health effect of a certain functional ingredient. Miller and Russell (2004) and Ayranci et al. (2005) discovered that television, printed material, internet websites, family members, and friends are usually seek by consumers to obtain information about supplement, yet advice from physicians or other health care providers were not frequently seek by women in their study. Supplement that is “natural” is believed to be more wholesome and safe by some consumers, but it is misleading to use the term “natural” in supplement labels, thus is prohibited (Miller and Russell, 2004).

2.2 Dietary Supplements

According to the National Institute of Health (2005) the United States Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 (United States DSHEA) defined dietary supplements as “any product (other than tobacco) that is intended to supplement the diet that contains one or more of the following ingredients: a vitamin, a mineral, an herb or other botanical, an amino acid, a supplement used by man to supplement the diet by increasing the total dietary intake, or a concentrate, metabolite, constituent, extract, or combination of any ingredient described above. It can be in the form of capsule, powder, softgel, gelcap, tablet, liquid, or other form that can be ingested by human”. Dietary supplements are neither considered as drugs nor conventional food (National Institutes of Health, 2005). It is consider as a nutraceuticals (Lockwood, 2007).

The consumption of dietary supplement has increase dramatically in today’s world. This is mainly due to the increasing health awareness among consumers, aging population, and marketing effort of the dietary supplements companies (Euromonitor International, 2009). Miller and Russell (2004), as well as Ayranci, Son a, and Son b (2005) had identified variety of reason for people to take dietary supplements. One of the reasons is to decrease their susceptibility to health problems such as stress, heart attacks, colds, osteoporosis, cancer and so on. Other reasons for consumption of dietary supplement include for energy enhancement, promote weight loss, retarding of aging, and enhance athletic performance.

However, Ayranci et al. (2005) and Lockwood (2007) reported that supplement had lead to several adverse effects such as nausea and vomiting, headaches, gastrointestinal disturbance, liver insufficiency, and interfering with insulin secretion. Timbo, Ross, McCarthy, and Lin (2006) had discovered that most supplements used by their respondents in their study are multivitamins/multiminerals, and it has accounted to 13% of the reported adverse events. The manufacturer of the dietary supplement must be responsible for the safety of the product before it is marketed. However FDA is responsible to show evident that the supplement poses risk which is unsafe for consumption and to remove it from shelf (Nesheim, 1998; FDA, 2009).

2.3 Overview of Seaweed

There are three groups of marine plants: microalgae, macroalgae, and rooted plants. Seaweeds are considered as macroalgae, which are multi-cellular plants that usually anchor on hard surfaces such as rock. It is a more complex form of organisms as compared to algae. Most of them have specialized tissues and they may have very complicated sex. Basically there are three types of seaweeds that differentiate in colour – red (Rhodophyta), green (Chlorophyta), and brown (Phaeophyta) that varies in their nutrient and chemical composition (Guiry, 2010). Japan and China are the main producers, cultivators, and consumers of seaweed. In the meanwhile, Scotland, Chile, Philippines, Malaysia, Indonesia, Korea, Singapore, Sri Lanka and so on also consumes seaweed widely (Dhargalkar & Verlecar, 2009).

Human and animals has been using seaweeds for thousands of years ago in many countries. It had been recorded that the use of seaweeds dates back to 2700 BC in the compilation on “Chinese Herbs” by Emperor Shen Nung. Furthermore, the Japanese include seaweeds as part of their diet since 300 BC (National Academy of Agricultural Sciences [NAAS], India, 2003). European countries also consume seaweed products widely for the past few decades. Dawczynski, Schubert, and Jahreis (2006) had cited that 15 to 20 edible seaweed species are marketed for consumption in Europe. Besides using it as a food, hydrocolloids can be extracted from seaweeds, which can be use in the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. Other than that, it is also used in agriculture and horticulture as organic fertilizer.

In general, seaweed obtains its mineral from the sea (Webb, 1997). Dharmananda (2002) stated that the minerals accounted up to 36% of its dry mass. These elements which are abundant in seaweeds include potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, copper, zinc, chloride, sulphur, phosphorous, cobalt, manganese, selenium, bromine, iodine, vanadium, arsenic, iron, and fluorine (Drum, n.d.). Therefore, Rupérez (2002); and Dhargalkar and Pereira (2005) suggested that edible seaweed could be used as a food supplement to help in meeting recommended daily intake. Dharmananda (2002) mentioned that seaweed has a high content of iodine compare to dietary minimum requirements (150µg/day). While protein content in seaweed varies according to types of seaweed. Red and brown seaweed are rich in carotenes (20-170 ppm). It is usually used in dietary supplements as a source of natural carotenes. Moreover, vitamin C in red and brown seaweed is significant (500-3000ppm). Seaweed has high percentage of essential fatty acids than land plants, yet it has little fat. In addition, seaweed is rich in fiber (32%-50% of dry matter).

Rocha de Souza, Marques, Guerra Dore, Ferreira da Silva, Oliveira Rocha, and Leite (2007) stated that the demand for antioxidant in seaweed is increasing by the food and pharmaceutical industries due to the natural anti-aging and anti-carcinogenic compounds. They discovered that there are a positive correlation between sulphate content and antioxidant activity in brown and red seaweeds. Other than antioxidant, Dawczynski et al. (2006) detected that the nutritional composition of the 34 edible seaweed tested contain all essential amino acids which is important for protein synthesis. More information about the nutrition content of seaweeds can be found in Dhargalkar and Pereira (2005); Oliveira et al. (2009); and Matanjun, Mohamed, Mustapha, and Muhammad (2009).

2.3.1 Health benefits of seaweeds

The benefits of seaweed as traditional and modern medicine had been studied by many researchers. Dharmananda (2002) identify few types of seaweed that commonly used in Chinese medicine. They are Kunbu (Laminaria and Ecklonia), Haizao (Sargassum), Zicai (Porphyra). These seaweeds are able to soften hardness, disperse accumulation, resolve phlegm, promote diuresis, and dispel heat. They are believed to help in various diseases. In Davidson’s (2001) article, Sargassum are found to treat goiter, edema, pain from hernia and swollen testes, scrofuladerma, and silicosis (lung disease). It also helps to promote weight loss but need to use with caution. During the olden days in Scotland, Ulva lactuca, Monostroma grevillei, Enteromorpha intestinalis, and Palmaria palmate were used for nosebleeds, migraines, burns, sores, cuts, and to treat cold while Fucus canaliculatus and F. vesiculosus were used in treating rheumatic (Webb, 1997; Flora Celtica, n.d.). Webb (1997) also mentioned that wakame (Alaria spp) is believed to promote hair growth and luster as well as to improve skin tone.

Webb (1997), Guiry (1996-2010) and Flora Celtica (n.d.) mentioned that research team from National Cancer Institute in Bethesda found that 15,000 compounds from about 6,000 marine species including algae, fungi, and seaweed containing anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antimicrobial, antifungal, anticancer, anti-helminth (worm) and immune-suppressive properties. Webb (1997) stated that researchers and herbalists believed that seaweed has the ability to remove heavy metal out of the body. Drum (n.d.) found that Algin in seaweed is the component that has heavy metal detoxifying properties. Other than that, seaweed is often used to restore skin texture and reduce swelling in surgical incisions. This was supported by Drum (n.d) where fucoidan are able to promote more rapid tissue healing and have antiviral action.

Drum (n.d.) believed that eating seaweeds raw instead of extracts have more appealing effects on diseases. The author also recommended that seaweed should eaten daily in small amount rather than occasionally in larger amounts. This is because the digestive flora in a person may take up to four months to produce dedicated enzymes to digest the dietary seaweeds thoroughly. Therefore, obvious positive effects of eating seaweeds regularly may take several weeks or months. The author observed that chronic fatigue, lack of energy, subclinical depression and depressed immunity can be resolved by consuming seaweed to replace the minerals that were deficient. The author also discovered that seaweed baths are able to relief muscle and joint pain, eczema, and prostatic swelling. In conclusion, seaweeds bring more benefits than harm to human being and to the environment. For more information of seaweed use as traditional medicine, Moo-Puc, Robledo, and Freile-Pelegrin (2008) had identified few from previous research and summarize into a table.

While in the scientific research, many studies also showed that various seaweed have appealing health benefits to human. Mineral-rich extract from Lithothamnion calcareum was test in an animal test found to have chemoprevention properties in colon and anti-inflammation properties in fastrointestinal tract (Aslam, Paruchuri, Bhagavathula, & Varani, 2010). Miyake et al. (2006) found that seaweed intake able to decrease prevalence of allergic rhinitis (especially Japanese cedar pollinosis) on female Japanese young adults. In animal test using Laminaria, Teas, Harbison, and Gelman (1984) discovered that it delayed the growth of tumors in carcinogenic female rats, thus proved to have antitumor effect. Moo-Puc et al. (2008) demonstrated that all 25 tropical seaweed from the coast of Yucatan (Mexico) tested in the study have anti-trichomonal activity (human parasitic infection which causes by Trichomoniasis) with 44% of the seaweeds studied had high to moderate anti-trichomonal activity. In addition to that, Lobophora variegate and Udotea conglutinate showed the greatest anti-trichomonal activity.

2.3.2 Background of Eucheuma cottonii / Kappaphycus alvarezii

Source: Doty, M.S., Caddy, J.F., & Santelices, B. (Eds.). (1987). FAO Corporate document repository: Case studies of seven commercial seaweed resources. Retrieved February 20, 2010, from http://www.fao.org/docrep/x5819e/x5819e00.htm#Contents.

Eucheuma cottonii is a type of red seaweed (Doty, Caddy, & Santelices, 1987). Santos (1989) mentioned that “Cottonii” is the commercial name for Kappaphycus alvarezii and Kappaphycus striatum. Doty et al. (1987) stated that Kappaphycus alvarezii is mainly farmed to produce carrageenans for commercial use. Carrageenan is a cell wall component that represents 40 to 75 percents of the seaweed’s salt-free dry weight. Carrageenan produce by K. alvarezii is kappa carrageenan which containing 28% 1 sulfate or less. As mentioned above by Rocha de Souza et al. (2007), higher sulfate content shown to have higher antioxidant activity. K. straitum, formerly dominating the farming was now replaced by K. alvarezii as it is much easier to grown. Suresh Kumar, Ganesan, and Subba Rao (2008) found that the world production of Kappaphycus species is about 28000 tons per annum. Due to its easily accessible in a massive amount, it account for the largest worldwide consumption for food and pharmaceutical applications.

Besides containing carrageenans, Eucheuma contain small amount of cellulose and other unspecified materials (Doty et al., 1987). At that moment, the nutritional value of Eucheuma and its carrageenan are unknown by the authors, and they believed that Eucheuma and foods containing it does not bring any health benefit to human. In contrast, Drum (n.d.) mentioned that carrageenan is used to treat sore mouths and throats, respiratory ailments, and constipation.

Matanjun et al. (2009) had examined the nutrient composition of E. cottonii. They is like other seaweeds, are rich in various nutrients. The table below is the nutrient composition of E. cottonii discovered from their research. Other than that, fatty acid content and amino acid content of E. cottonii can be found in their article.

Table: Nutrient composition of Eucheuma Cottonii.


E. cottonii

Protein (%)


Lipid (%)


Ash (%)


Crude fiber (%)


Carbohydrate (%)


Moisture content (%)


Soluble fiber (%)


Insoluble fiber (%)


Total dietary fiber (%)


Vitamin C (mg 100g-1 WW)


α-tocopherol (mg 100g-1 DW)


Na (mg 100g-1 DW)


K (mg 100g-1 DW)


Ca (mg 100g-1 DW)


Mg (mg 100g-1 DW)


Fe (mg 100g-1 DW)


Zn (mg 100g-1 DW)


Cu (mg 100g-1 DW)


Se (mg 100g-1 DW)


I(μg g-1 DW)


Na/K ratio


Total cations


*Values are in term of mean±standard deviation with n=3

Source: Matanjun, P., Mohamed, S., Mustapha, N. M., & Muhammad, K. (2009). Nutrient content of tropical edible seaweeds, Eucheuma cottonii, Caulerpa lentillifera and Sargassum polycystum. Journal Application Phycology, 21, 76-79.

Antioxidant was significantly found in E. cottonii, yet the amount may not be as high as in brown and green seaweed (Kumar, et al., 2007; Rocha de Souza, et al., 2007; Matanjun, Mohamed, Mustapha, Muhammad, & Ming, 2008). Matanjun, Mohamed, Muhammad, and Mustapha (2010) discovered that E. cottonii has anti-hyperlipemic properties. It is able to reduce plasma total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, plasma triglycerides, body weight gain, erythrocyte glutathione peroxidise, plasma lipid peroxidation, and arherogenic index in rats which subjected to high-cholesterol/ high-fat diets. It is also able to increase HDL-cholesterol in these rats to normal level.


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