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High Context Cultures And Low Context

Paper Type: Free Essay Subject: Marketing
Wordcount: 3600 words Published: 21st Apr 2017

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INTRODUCTION

This essay will explain about globalization and problems which occurs on international advertising. It will show a few samples. From past until this time globalization is growing in the world. It is covering around the world. Special companies run everywhere which exist human. By the way globalization affect people both good side and bad side. Companies should improve their globalization strategies. Because for one product there are many firms. They should create best strategy to get competitive advantage. Moreover international advertision about product is so important. As long as advertising would be done people will focus on product. But many problems could be revealed. This assignment will get solution to these problems.

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The method of globalization require the possibility of bringing about misfortune also luck and in spite of it is hard to determine with any grade of satisfaction it is a reason in many conflicts. Action of people has a man global dimension and is due to influenced internationalization in that it has an effect that potential risks are lead.

Globalization could be described as a group of financial , cultural, technological, political and social pattern of interrelationships within an organization and methods coming into being from the editing a distinguishing characteristic of the product, the quantity of something which is consumed and business tradement of goods and capital which is to be made up of the fundamental part of the global political economy. “Global standard products as a result of the new commercial realities, the giant world of previously unimagined scale of magnitude of the explosive emergence of markets for the global market is better” (Levitt 1983)There is a rising of having structure showing the difference of these goods and capital which has distributed from side to side national political limitations and economic areas and has been outcome in the attractive effect of political and financial changing. These changes are transformational and international movement which have a fundamental effect on results in evaluating topic areas.

Globalization may be thought as the outcome of a greater structure of a worldwide market. It is not same with the internationalization. Due to globalization the world is getting smaller. Definetly globalization brings success and wealth and higher standarts of living

ADVERTISING

The expressing a refusal debate supposes that international advertising with a fixed and definite purpose gets opportunity of improving countries and their lacking in importance , easily influenced markets. Nevertheless to absolutely improve a debate which advocates advertising in different nation markets. The purpose of advertising should be defined. According to Mooji , “large-volume, new products and to inform the competitive advantage to establish a free market economy functioning and economies of scale and competition, this brings.Advertising interconnection with the sale to ensure that advertising purposes strong construction helps brands, and innovation stimulates advertising expenditures in the range and increasing Media diversity has brought.”

Certainly the aim does not involve establishing causing harm symbols nor does it say not essential advertisement of product expenditure. Ä°t does advance rivalry , innovation and the independence of selection. Ä°nternational advertising, if it is broadcasted from american cooperations or national customers-driven business organisation, is a sort of business ability to speak. Ä°n many areas in the world, independence of economical ability to speak is under control the act of attacking. Biocca (1991) suggested “that one way to analyze advertisements was to break them down into smaller components, such as scenes or verbal statements” to determine how often issues were discussed as compared to images.”

The making compatible an international advertising and auction promotion attempt with the social being the only market is the competition presenting the global advertiser. The simple process can be seen at below.

Should be evaluated the promotional mix

Should be evaluated change of the standartation in the world.

Improve the best of crucial messages

Choose attractive media

They can make problems for global advertiser.

Rivalry of very great force among different market and rising things which makes consumers complex have showed the way a requirement for more complex advertising plans. There is one thing which is discussed law places that it is appropriated to the grade of advertising changing in quantities essential in different countries.every country is facing many problems about global advertising. It could be adviced that advertising must be standart for every markets in the world. Many marketing programs should be observed by firms. For example the Gillette company which runs more than 300 countries. They can sell many products. They have a special symbol in the world. It is sport centralized firm. Although it ‘s products do not have consistent symbol in the world. They are called for different names in the world. Example track 2 blades are called as G2 and astra blades are known contor in Europe and asia. For instance, “while advertising messages in Sweden mostly try to inform the audience, the main purpose of Canadian advertising is to remind, while in Turkey advertising typically strives to persuade the target” (Kaynak and Ghauri, 1986).

In general international particular product is the outcome of a firm that selects to be led the way by an international marketing strategy. International brands transmit the alike name, same picture and same global strategy in the world. For instance coca cola , mc donalds. Several international firms have wealthy centralized in the world being famous of singers in their international advertisements. For instance, Michael Jackson and tina turner are made a feature in pepsi cola advertisements.

CREATIVE CHALLENGES

International advertisers who work in the work have improved their abilities to the main topic that advertisements in unlike places divulge simple same things and an improving grade of sophistication. To confuse problem else borders, are lined on making by legal, media,language and a few limitations.

Linguistic limitations: language can be considered main crucial things that block a way or separates to impressive communication by advertising. The matter includes the unlike languages of unlike places. Words are comfortably connected to culture and society. For example tv advertisements in Malaysia were showed in malay, English and Chinese. Many languages were broadcasted through English programme if the advertisement is not made in English. In the same way it is valid for hindu, Korean programmes.” Translation translate communication messages within a certain cultural-linguistic system, all the results and resources related to an alteration of language, the establishment does not change, cultural-linguistic transfer and target its message across the border recomposition” (Toury 1980)

Cultural diversity: succeeding in managing different languages,societies, cultures and religions under one single organization are a few fundamental headed by the international marketing and are more confused than they look like on the out of front. Individuals who have mix backgrounds not just have variations of social options. Cultural effect affects the psychological area of the character of people as well. For example , the social and cultural something worth the money it cost and standarts that are required in the USA , Asia and Europe are absolutely in contrary of one another and because of that they are the objectivities of people. For example , Australians are absolutely caused to be liked with personality of Ronald Mc Donald. While in japan he is called as Donald Mc Donald as it is simpler for Japanese to say the name.

Media Limitations: its recognition of high quality that restrictions on inventive .plan established by media might decrease the role of advertising. in the program and might make people force to prominence to another parts of tradement mix. Inventure marketers in a few countries have improved their own media for dealing with media limitations. For example in a few African countries marketers operate travel in a boat the rivers having famous song and transmitted commercially into an uncultivated area covered with trees they have a trip

Living standarts: living standarts for aim places also influence the marketing possibilities of production. For instance, in China where the life standart is under average the people should be prepared something toward spending cost on main requirements like food instead of tampaons, which is second requirement.

Political factors: political advertisements have headed powerful analysis of work during the year from people who study an academic subject and other people who believe that take part in radio or tv advertisements criticize democracy by making a point on symbols rather than crucial local policy rules. For example, Patterson and McClure (1976) found out that President Richard Nixon operated 65 minutes of advertisements that debated his own policy whilst the evening News had only 15 minutes on the same subject. Moreover whilst the network news had 5 minutes on crisis,expenditure on military, and the process of decaying in government, Nixon’s campaign determined these issues in 25 minutes worth of commercials. The like was right for Senator George McGovern, Nixon’s Democratic opponent in the election. McGovern ran 60 minutes worth of ads covering military expenditure, taxes, and Vietnam, compared to the 10 minutes the network news devoted to those issues. “Spot advertising to manipulate the public about issues that candidates do more to make more efforts to educate the public about “

Technology: technology may evaluate if product can be traded within a place or not ADSL or broadband need a quality telephone line and in many growing places these lines do not yet become which may be known to supply ADSL service. Technology may show unlike ways on advertising on product. Ä°n india, some firms exploit mobile phone’s SMS or message to make products advertisement as SMS is not expensive and the mobile phone is largely exploited in india.

CONCLUSION

To sum up, the industry of advertising is efficiently related to the negative opinions of people and governments and with the weak experiences of a few advertisers. The topic advertisement has not been both easy to describe and classify. Rising standardization is certain as markets internationaliza and advertizers as well as firms have been themselves international roles. Nevertheless consumers are stil public with unlike cultures, different languages and religious standarts. Whilst it looks like available to make advertising strategy norms. Technique will stil need many customers.

PART 2

INTRODUCTION

Cultural development in the twenty first century has increased the special importance on relation between people communication in an intercultural options. Ä°n today’s business connections , it is a tiny world after that. When many firms turn to international markets, businessmen are discovering themselves in foreign publics. Nevertheless , the point to impressive communication among countries is a recognition of every culture.

Firstly called by author Edward Hall, the definitions “high context” and “low context” are briefs descriptive term given to a group being a sign of indication of existing as an inseperable part cultural variations between people. High context and low context communication are related to how much people trust to things other than sentences to another meaning. Hall puts that in communication, people head many more relating to the physical senses than they can amply step. Cultures generally that approving attitude low context communication will focus to the dictionary meaning of words than to the context encircling meaning. Ä°t is crucial not to forget that every person uses both high context and low context communication. Hofstede defines culture as:

“the collective programming of the mind that distinguishes the

members of one group or category of people from others”

Edward Hall, is a scientist who gives the emphasis the relationship between culture and communication people. He tells that it is essential to learn the culture of a place to aimly communicate with people from another place. Hall seperates cultures to two different parts. They are high context cultures and low context cultures.. if a place has a low context culture or a high context culture is return to with same method the people communicate.

KNOWLEDGE METHOD

People who belongs to high context cultures are possibly to get knowledge from their private knowledge network, whilst people belongs to low context cultures look for knowledge on opinions and legally contract from investigation fundamental parts. Ä°n high context cultures knowledge is divided with some people and information flow is limited. Ä°na low context culture nevertheless people are satisfied to divide knowledge with other people. According to Hall high context people are concerned with the ownership. “People from low context cultures less space and property boundaries are less important to them “

Moreover high context versus low context cultures is to declare to be like their possessing and mathematical accesses to a duty. Low context cultures have a more mathematichal accesses and they give prominence, information picking up and strategy. High context cultures have more possessing access.

TIME ORIENTATION

How a culture consider in a special manner, call and communicate people’s time is other part in which high context and low context cultures make them different. High context cultures consider time when something clear and comfortable however in low context cultures time is certainly planned. According to Hall ” low context cultures are characterized by monochramic time”. Ä°t means that they focused on the job on time, they organize and prepare thoroughly and they think their job before private relationships with family. They select attention in person.

On the other hand for high context cultures people do not have emotional sensation unable on concentrate if other duties require to be made occurring in same time and they went on a few communication at the same time. Ä°n high context cultures relationships with family comes before work life.

Time plans lives of people in several methods and how people consider time differences between high context cultures and low context cultures. Low context cultures are law worked for aim and people put by another laws. They are cautious. Ä°n attitude to watch laws and shedules be attented to become on time and they give emphasis to ahead considering and strategy for future. High context cultures pay attention on previous success and these cultures. Ä°t is good to be early as it is in low context cultures.

INTERACTION PATTERNS

Ä°n Hall’s opinion, high context cultures are scanty and spread out over a wide area in their communication and they attend tos hare less knowledge and most is accepted that something is true without requiring proof. High context cultures use more not involving the use of language. In low context cultures less is accepted. They are having many details paid attention and it also means that there is little luck interpretation. Low context cultures also more paid attention on communication in the form of words rather than body language.Japan , France and Korea could be considered as high context cultures. Uk , USA can be consider as low context cultures.

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High context cultures use little without casual knowledge. Opinions and functions pay attention around in person relationships sometimes round centralized people who have official permission. Besides senses and considering in high context cultures are not direct and inexplicit and their communicating manner trust to articulation style and motions among the people in low context cultures. “In an LC culture, it is thought to be polite to ask questions that in an HC culture often seem too personal and even offensive.” (Tella, 2005)

However people places their impressions and opinions in to words as they show themselves. People from high context cultures and low context cultures do not consider struggles in the alike method. People from low context cultures understand the resource of the struggles as becoming instrumental. People may thus debate to duty pointed subjects without obtaining personal. According to hall “High context people are more inclined to take personal and view conflicts as a defect” . in high context cultures, such as china people are possibly to block list whether the fundamental point was to be introduced in the starting

CROSS CULTURAL COMMUNICATION

There are several things that someone has to accept in head in everytime communication with unlike cultures. Language socialization can be broadly defined as “an investigation of how language both presupposes and creates anew, social relations in cultural context”( Rymes, 2008). Sometimes the people from high context cultures communicating with low context cultures they have to limit themselves. They can be seen at below.

They should attempt to be gone ahead and open when they could due to carrying themselves. They can not trust to others social data.

Cultural closeness is required ad move upon these closeness is needed

They have to set up themselves in conditions of time predilection and attempt to be prompt on time.

They should attempt treat in a Professional manner and go on to the strategy

They should let them with their area and liberty of identity rather than to intimately hide in a team.

Ä°f the people from low context cultures communicate with people from high context cultures they should limit themselves

They have to show regard to high context cultures standarts, culture and treatment and attempt to supply them with plenty time for their colony in the team

They require to unbrace the powerful rules for time promptness and set up themselves with high context cultures treatment to time predilection

They have to train themselves to collect the vispy words of other people

They have to companion with a team to step a matter figuring out technique

Both of people from low context cultures and high context cultures should consider these conditions.

CONCLUSION

To sum up, the aim of this essay are explained. Differences between hig context cultures and low context cultures are presented. As it can be seen that there are many differences. Culture is so effective on people. Ä°t is difficult living of the people who has low context culture in high context area. Ä°n the same way opposite situation is difficult as well. There are many limitations.i would like to recommend that people should respect each other. They can not change their culture. Because some of them are dependent on their culture.

REFERENCES

Toury, Gideon. 1980. In Search of a Theory of Translation. Tel Aviv: Porter Institute for Poetics and Semiotics.

Levitt, Theodore (1983). The Globalization of Markets. Boston, MA: Graduate School of Business Administration, Harvard University

Kaynak, E., & Ghauri, P.N. (1986). A comparative analysis of advertising practices in unlike environments: A study of agency-client relationships. International Journal of Advertising, 5 (2), 121-146.

De Mooij, M (2003). Consumer behavior and culture: Consequences for global marketing and advertising. Thousand Oaks, C.A: Sage Publications.

Biocca, Frank. (1991b) “The Analysis of Discourses Within the Political Ad.” In

Television and Political Advertising Volume 2: Signs, Codes, and Images. Ed.

Frank Biocca. Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers 45-59

Patterson, Thomas E., and Robert D. McClure. (1976) The Unseeing Eye: The Myth of Television Power in National Politics. (New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons).

Cateora, P. & Graham, J. (2002) International Marketing. New York: McGraw-Hill

Hofstede, G. (2001) Culture’s Consequences: Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions and Organizations across Nations, Second edition. London: Sage Publication

Hall, Edward T. 1976, Beyond Culture 3rd edition, Anchor Press/Doubleday, Garden City, New York.

Rymes, (2008). Language Socialization and the Linguistic Anthropology of Education. Encyclopedia of Language and Education

Tella, S. (2005). Multi-, inter- and transdisciplinary affordances in foreign language

education: From singularity to multiplicity.

In J. Smeds, K. Sarmavuori, E. Laakkonen & R. de Cillia (Eds.), Multicultural Communities, Multilingual Practice (pp. 67-88).

 

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