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Undergound Fault Detector Using Internet of Things

Paper Type: Free Essay Subject: Information Technology
Wordcount: 2829 words Published: 18th May 2020

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We are going to perform the project which has the name Underground Fault Detector on the base of IOT. In this project we will find the fault of power cable which is situated in underground. And also we are going to upload this online over the cloud platform via using Wi-Fi module 8266 where the cable distance is in kilometres so we can put some sensor over every 5 kilometre so if we get any fault in any distance it will show in LCD display that would help us easily to change the cable only in that part so it makes cheaper than normal changes of full cable. There are lots of project available in market but it will be cheaper than others. We can fix it anywhere underground using battery because some batteries have long life.


In this project, we are total 3 partners and making the project based on electricity and cables which has named underground cable fault detector with IOT .because in now days there lots of incidents happened around everywhere through electricity. There are two types of cabling one is overhead cable and another one is an underground cable. So if we are using an underground cable which is very safe for human and all other creatures. So if you guys got any fault in the underground cable so it will take more cost to change the whole cable instead of changing the whole cable we make one of the project which can find the fault exact location so we can change the cable only in that portion so it will take low cost and make job easier. So in this project, we are going to use different criteria and different type with different faults like ducting, line to line and many other on that we are going to use resistor, capacitor, and Arduino.  In this project we are using a transformer, LCD, some LED lights, some relays, Arduino board, Wi-Fi module ESP 8266, and resistor. So basically the project is simple so like if we got any fault in a cable like a short circuit or cable break or anything we can get the proper distance in LCD and using Wi-Fi module esp8266 we get the result online as well on thingspeak.com. In this we make distance of 5 kilometres using putting the switches like total 5 switches so each indicate as 5 kilometre and when you turn off the 3 switches in any phase like R, Y or B. so we are creating fault and it we take example that if the phase is R and show in display phase R and 15 so it means on R cable there is a fault on distance of 15 kilometre. So it will more helpful to find a fault and as here we are going to use the Wi-Fi module 8266 which is going to upload data on-site so we can check it by time to time that everything is fine or not. And we can operate it from anywhere so this prototype is small and we can put it anywhere underground without giving any direct supply because instead of current supply we can use a battery as well so we can fix this underground. And when we are using the Wi-Fi module it will upload the data online on thingspeak.com and it shows the graph as well. When any faults occur in the underground cable at the moment fault detect by system and real time data uploaded on the IOT with exact location. So it can fix it as soon as possible. It will also reduce human resource, time and maintenance cost. Overall this system gives many advantages to current industry’s work life as well as people.

      This Portion provides significant different investigations for Underground cable fault detection.

  1. This research paper gives information about a resilient incipient fault location algorithm in the time-domain. Which uses data received by PQ monitors to calculate the damage location using the line impedance by taking into account the arc voltage associated with the incipient cable faults. So algorithm can easily identify the fault location between adjacent manholes. The ANNs are a statistical learning algorithm influenced by biological neural networks. ANNs are used appropriate functions that rely on the bunch of inputs. The algorithm finds the exact fault location in the underground cable. (P.S, 2015)
  1. This paper represented characteristics of simultaneous fault signal in distribution underground cable using DWT. The simulations were performed by using ATP/EMTP and the analysis behaviour of characteristics signals was performed using DWT. Different case studies have been carried out including the single fault and simultaneous fault. (Ngaopitakkul, 2011)
  1. From this research paper, finds underground cable fault location and average life of the cable by using Fourier analysis. In this system they used three types of faulty cables. The impedance is measured in each case and Fourier transformation is applied in the frequency domain. This analysis shows differences in the frequency response of the three different types of a cable and can be used as a measure for fault detection. So, Fourier analysis methods can be effectively used as low cost and viable solutions to identify and detect faults in underground cables. (Pandey, 2010)
  1. This paper Point outs a new impedance based fault location method in the case of phase to phase and three phase faults. This system used the measured impedance by distance relay and super imposed current factor to discriminate the fault location. This method is accurately measured impedance and super imposed current factor. (Jamali, 2010)
  1. This paper represented fault location algorithms without using line parameters. This method is using unsynchronized voltage and current measurements from both of line without requiring line parameters based on the distributed parameter line model. The fault location is not sensitive to measurement errors while line parameter are estimating to measurement errors. (Liao, 2009)

Project Scope

Project Name :- Underground Cable Fault detection by using IOT

Date:-  26/08/2019

Project Justification

Underground cable fault detection system is a user friendly projevt. It can help to find automatic three types of faults and damage of cable with live location on Real-Time display.

Project Description

Find out different types of Fault with exact location

  1. Line to Line and Line to Ground Fault
  2. Resistance and capacitance fault
  3. Ducting Fault
  4. Software

Collect real time data and location of Fault over the cloud and IOT

Project Deliverables

  • Prepare Project Plan
  • Design project Diagram
  • Order the Components
  • Implementation of components
  • Testing
  • Design software of IOT


  1. Collect all components – 21 Aug
  2. Implementation of components – 29 Aug
  3. Soldering and wiring -29 Aug
  4. Result of Testing –  13 Nov
  5. Software IOT – 22 Oct
  6. Final inspection – 16 Nov
  7. Final Project -25 November

WBS (Work Breakdown Structure)

Underground Cable Fault Detection by using IOT






Integration and Test

Determine Team

Performing Primary Planning

Soldering Components





Initial Prototype

Develop WBS

Prototype Testing

Research Analysis

Order Components

Manage Change

Plan Budget


Block Diagram


Design Document

Project Methodology and Requirements

    Project will be carried out

  • Research Documentation
  • Discuss with project tutor
  • Design Block diagram
  • Implementation of Components
  • Design Software
  • Testing of Prototype
  • Changes
  • Comments and redesign
  • Final Testing
  • Report Writing

Hardware Requirements

  • ARDUINO controller
  • LCD
  • Crystal
  • Relays
  • Relay Driver IC
  • Transformer
  • Diodes
  • Voltage Regulator
  • Resistors
  • Capacitors
  • LEDs
  • switches

Software Requirements

  • Arduino program

    Overall Cost

  • Estimate of 1 Prototype









Relay Drive IC






Voltage Regulator










Extra unexpected Cost


Overall Cost



     Additional Resources (Cost increase)

     Fast Completion (Risk Increase and Quality Decrease)


     Unexpected testing Result

     Failure of component

     Impact the quality, timeline, and cost

     Implementation may become difficult or impossible

     Include design, implementation, interface, verification and maintenance problem

Project Plan and Schedule

Figure 1. Project Plan

Figure 2. Gantt chart














Works Cited

  • Jamali, S. (2010). Impedance based fault location method for single phase to earth faults in transmission systems. 10th IET International Conference on Developments in Power System Protection. Manchester, UK.
  • Liao, Y. (2009). Yuan Liao . IEEE.
  • Ngaopitakkul, A. (2011). Study of characteristics for simultaneous faults in distribution underground cable using DWT. IEEE.
  • P.S, P. (2015). Fault Detection Technique to pinpoint Incipient Fault for Underground Cables. International Journal of Engineering Research and General Science.
  • Pandey, A. (2010). Underground cable fault detection and identification via fourier analysis. Conference: High Voltage Engineering and Application.






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