E government is the basically the system which involves activities to modernize none developed and paper based systems. In E government system, it refers to establish strong connection between information technologies and traditional and physical based systems.
Because physical systems consists of boundaries which does not fulfill requirements of customers. Information technology based systems enhances control and capacity over a number of individuals. E government is such platform which has main focus on communication, integrity and real time implementation.
The main objective of E government is to build up connection between government services and the citizens. Its growing process which is basically transformation of non automated current systems into automated, computerization and technology based systems.
Modern technology based systems increased efficiency and increased control of current business activities. The objective of e goverment is the establishment of efficient and swift delivery of goods and services to individuals.
In last decade, many governments have developed web portals and government online services in order to make it accessible information among their citizens
E government is defined as the use of internet and web tool to achieve better goals government services. E government is considered as carrying out government services by using internet among citizens
The concept of E government is continuously growing towards new direction after adoption new invention in IT industry.
Types of E government:
There are four types of E government.
Government to business
Government to employee
Government to citizen
Government to Government
We can define types of E government in our own words.
Government to business:
Government to business involves those services which usually happen between Government and business community. Government encourages online trade services for business community. For example online transactions, auctions trade systems, online sale and purchase systems etc. Government provides security to seller and buyer in order to have reliable online business. Business services involve current business information, downloading forms, renewing license, registering business, obtaining permits and payment of taxes. Government develops online trade business websites to sell and buy goods for their registered users and provides enterprise applications for business community.
Government to employee:
Government to employee involves providing services to government employes. Goverment provides better salary systems, tax payment and online working schedule.
Government to citizen:
Government to citizen includes services which are provided from government to ordinary citizens for example online citizen registration, income tax, license registration, health case, libariries systems etc.
Government to Government:
Government to government involves services which are with governments and sub departments of government
Actors of E government:
These are some partners of E government which are known as actors of Egoverment. There are specific departments which have main role in E government because objective of E government will not be completed without these actors.
Government is main actor in E government which provides services to public through information technology. Government contains two departments which are central government and local government. Central government plays main role in order to design and integrate E services between various external agencies and government. Local government works on front side which interacts with public. The public has direct access to local government in order to solve their issues online. Local government handles activities like online registration, downloading forms, health services, income tax forms, driver license, banking forms and education services etc. All originations are connected with local government directly or indirectly which provides their services to their citizens.
Business is also main actor in Egoverment. Business actors are connected to business services and public. Governement offers their projects to companies in order to outsource their projects. A lot of companies are participating in e goverment projects.
Citizen plays main role in society too. We can categorize citizens
Services of E goverment:
We have categorized services of e goverment into various forms which covers business services, customer services, government agencies services etc.
Productivity and efficiency of government agencies:
Government prefers to implement latest ICT tools in order to improve productivity and efficiency of government agencies. If access of critical information becomes easier, it would be helpful to increase production and generate revenue in business platforms. If government implements easy process for customers and reliable opportunities to access their information, it would increase production of government. So it’s very important, what types of ICT tools are being implemented by government for customers. These tools should be user friendly, easy to understand, easy way to access information and short procedure in order to solver customer services. It is one of the most important responsibilities of government, creates such enviorment for customers. Goods should be delivered in minimum time. Goverment must offer multiple deliver platforms during initial period.
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Website development for public sector:
The internet has major influence in business and in other departments as well. The public expects fast communication and data flow. So Government prefers to develop such websites which are accessible 24 hours of the day. So all interested parties, visitors, and government employees, business community can access information of government after visiting their websites. The local government encourages to develop website where government can publish their information according public requirements which should be more quickly and easy to use. In developing countries, people are used to access information from internet and can be aware of new trends of market. The public gets information from internet like shopping, entertainment etc. people are expecting more from government in order fulfill their requirements in business area and government information. So information should be displayed in websites in most perfect way which should be in proper pattern and understandable for all types of public like educated or uneducated people. The user friendly and fast websites can increase quantity of customers of government rapidly. Websites should display information about special offers of government very clearly and proper help should be available how to buy and sell how to bid on movement tenders or projects. In developing countries, the government website is in beginning stage and public is getting influence with the passage of time how they can interact with government services online. Governments employees are getting rid of headaches face to face communication with public easily submit their forms from government websites.
Moreover customer are able to conduct transactions online ,they can electricity bills online and can submit construction requests online ,some special offers are available for potential customers from government online, potential customer can conduct transaction in order to bid government counteracts. The organizations structure of government websites have major affect on citizens because it will make it easy to read contents and easy to access information and services. Website development depends upon how to implement navigation tools. Navigation tools contain how to put buttons, lists and frames, customer friendly search engines, content management and site map according to customer needs and assessments. The main frame of website should be on screen even having a lot of navigations by users. E government development believes on excellent presentation of their services on their websites. So users will use different choices on websites but main content of website should remain over there. For example if user clicked upon “Special offer” button, other pages which are already open should remain over there.
Improving business environment:
The use of ICT has excellent affect on non developed societies after increasing communication and integerations. Technology is pillar in economic enlargement and production growth. The stability in government can improve business opportunities after establishment of intensive business infrastructure locally. The attractive infrastructure of e government can attract global multinational companies in order to invest in country. E government should develop highly secure systems which must be safe and should not be complicated. The goal of E government is to provide secure transaction systems and make it useful for outsiders and foreign investers. This goal can be achieved after arrangement of immediate government services and after overcoming reputation in business processes.
Strengthen local government services:
The local companies and agencies should be strongly connected with government .The government can overcome corruption in their departments after full involvement of public in their policies and decisions. Because government cannot interfere directly with public issues. But it can be handled with strong connection with local companies. All companies must be registered and should fix same pattern for all types of companies and agencies. The corruption can be overcome by maintaining strong infrastructure and adopting latest ICT machenism. Strong governance can increase overall production by maintaining latest policies.
Managing National Card and passport:
Its one of the most important responsibilities of government to maintain database of their citizens. E government should provide online facilities where citizens can download registration forms and submit their forms online with full information. Similarly E government should maintain online system in order to apply passport. The computerized passport system can overcome work burden and minimize crime ratio.
Encouraging Private Sector Growth:
E government can enhance private sector growth after supporting and providing attractive opportunities rather than competing them in growing areas. E government should not participate itself in those departments in which they are not that expert in order to handle issues and cannot fulfill public requirements. E government should encourage private sector in order to facilitate public issues. The use of ICT in public sector can generate revenue and issues of public will be easily handled. E government should encourage private sector in order to deliver their services rather than involve those activities which are already managing by private-public sector.
Improving Security and Protection:
E government should train citizens and individuals and private sector how they can access government information and services. Because services cannot be accessed due to lack of literacy, lack of training, lack of interaction with ICT services and informality of ICT tools. So e government is responsible is to develop secure and protected systems which can increase trust of public on e government services. The systems must be secured even having wrong use of services by untrained citizens. After concept of E government, systems are more secured and protected rather than wastage of money and time on non secured systems.
Challenges of E government
Its challenge of E government to provide reliable and more sustainable system to public but government is facing some issues which we can discuses in details below.
Cost minimization is major challenge in E government. How E government can overcome cost of their systems, we think E government can minimize overall cost after maintaining strong connection with local agencies. Egovenment should emphasize to minimize cost of their projects to attract private sector for investment.
It’s also one of main challenges of E government how they can implement new ICT developed system at current available infrastructure. How they can interchange into new infrastructure which is acquired in order to implement new technologies. How they can estimate intensity of use of services in new infrastructure according to public requirements.
Its major task of E government challenges whether they can afford cost in case further enhancement in current system. The government should have proper budget in order to maintain of networks and should have field experts in order to handle issues.
Departments of E-government:
There are many department of government including business and private sector which can be dealt as E government services.
Web sites for all Ministries and divisions
Online education portal for educational institutions
Federal and provincial department of government.
Foreign consulate (Available Visa forms can be downloaded )
GIS for Agriculture
Natural resources & Urban department
Real Estate development
Supreme Court & High courts development
Online information system of Tax Returns
Online business development portal
Finance & Budgeting system
Human resource Management system
In developed countries, website portals for all departments are available with downloadable and printable forms. People can access information about all government announcements and services easily. People don’t need to visit government offices for their issues. Similarly in online educational institutions systems, admission policies, prospectus, Programe & course syllabus and schedule and downloadable forms can be accessed from their websites.
Similarly downloadable visa forms are available in foreign ministry online websites. People can apply their visa application online to migration board.
In Tax return deparment, people can fill forms electronically of their tax returns. They can look policies and procedures online about tax returns online from their websites.
In GIS & real estate department. Mapping and database is available for private sector and foreign investor. Foreighn investor can see town planning and maps of housing societies online.
In Supreme Court & high court department, people can access database of laws and regulations online and can see latest updated in case of any change in government laws. Online search engine is available also in order to search any kind of specific information.
Similarity in Online finance and budgeting systems, people can access information about planning, budjet and finance policies by government.
Background of E-Government in Pakistan:
According to the definition of E-Government, it enables citizens and business entities to get access to the government services effective, efficient and cost efficient way. Like other countries Pakistan also launched E-Government in order to achieve good governance and facilitate people of Pakistan. Most of developing countries like Pakistan are now able to have introduced this way of government and it is possible because of maturity and decrease in the cost of technology.
The scope of Electronic government in frame work of Federal Government of Pakistan can be described as combination of E enablement internally and providing e services externally to the stakeholders of Federal Government. The following figure describes the scope of E government in Pakistan which illustrated in Electronic Government Strategy and 5 years plan by Federal Government (which will be discussed later)
It includes the level of Government to Government within the Federal Government, with Provincial Government and also Governments of other countries.
It concludes Government to Business, all suppliers as well as businesses acquiring services from Government of Pakistan.
It includes Government to Citizens of Pakistan. It provides the efficient, higher quality and better accessibility of services to the citizens.
It includes Government to Employee of government. This includes easy to use and easy to find, point of services in the way of provision of speedy, better quality and higher accessibility.
It includes Internal Efficiency and Effectiveness. Usage of best practices and modern technology in order to improve quality and reduce quality of Federal Government ministries and departments.
Fig. Electronic Government Strategy and 5 Years Plan 2005. Electronic Government Directorate- Ministry of Pakistan
The Ministry of Information Technology was founded in the year 2000 and after its creation it was top priority through Human Resources development, opening a number of new IT universities and IT departments in existing institutions and also strengthening and promoting local IT industry through the Pakistan Software Export Board. And providing necessary IT training to federal and provincial government employees through the Computer Bureau and through automating various departments of federal and provincial governments. So for these tasks Ministry of IT has utilized a PSDP budget of Rs. 4.82 billion out of which a total amount of Rs. 370 million has been utilized on e government projects from the years 2000 to 2004.The another step in this process is to learn things from internationally and having MOUs with those countries which has successfully launched E-Government i.e. South Korea, China and Malaysia.
The Federal Ministry of Information Technology has been fully aware with the importance of Electronic Government and its beneficiary role in governments so the Ministry of IT included it as priority area in the 1st National IT policy and action plan that was endorsed by the Federal Cabinet in 2000.
The Ministry of Information Technology motivated those organizations whose have commitment, determination and are able to provide ownership towards e government systems. The ministry sponsored and implemented projects in those organizations in order to get success in this area.
At the same time Ministry empowered its own IT department by appointing technical experts as project managers. In addition to that the massive step taken was the establishing the Electronic Government Directorate (EGD) in October 2002.
As in October 2002 a concrete follow-up step to the IT Policy, the Federal Cabinet
Approved the merged transformation of the IT Commission into the E-Government Directorate (EGD). EGD was set up as a unit within the Ministry of IT in order to focus comprehensively on E-Government with the following Terms of References (TORs):
Lead the E-Government Effort in Pakistan
Plan and Implement projects under E-Government program
Provide technical support to Federal, Provincial & District agencies
Preparation of standards for software and infrastructure in the field of Electronic Government
The EGD’s task was generating more focus on e government and improving the quality of the government services by following integrated approach over the period of 7 years. Process of reengineering is being performed in all departments of the government. The finance and budgeting system and human resources are also being electronically managed now. Moreover, reengineering of agency specific applications are also under process. EGD initiated implementation of EGD and started different projects, some are follows:
IT Skills Training Program for probationary Government Officers
Survey of Federal Divisions for LAN & Hardware Requirements
Process Mapping for improving the efficiency of Ministry of Science & Technology
Online recruitment System for the Federal Public Service Commission
Salary disbursements through ATMs
Online Access to Statutory and Case laws at District Bar Associations
Citizens online- provision of services trough GOP portal
Technical Support to IT Departments of Provinces and AJK
The Electronic Government Directorate gave a government plan over the period of five years in 2005. That was named as E-government Strategy and 5 year plan for the Federal Government.
The IT programmed has the key component of Legislation. All online transactions and other processes need some new legislation and some amendments in the rule and regulations also. The govt. of Pakistan has propagated the Electronic Transaction Ordinance (ETO) in the year 2002 for the recognition of electronic transactions. In addition to that Ministry of IT has completed consultations on the draft of the Electronic Crimes Act, which is to be presented in front of Cabinet later. In order to the provision of security authentication services the government established an Accreditation Council to recognize the certification authorities.
E-Government Strategy and 5 Years Plan for the Federal Government:
The main objectives of this plan were to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of the government, making decision making process more transparent and accountable. Moreover, increasing delivering of public services to citizens cost effectively and efficiently.
Consequently in the result of that five year plan Ministry of Information and Technology has sponsored several projects for Electronic Government. Some projects have been implemented by the Ministry or attached departments; where as other projects are implemented by target organizations. The Ministry of IT has also sponsored the E-Government projects at provincial level in addition to Federal Government.
It is stated in E-Government strategy and 5 years plan that this strategy is based on following principles:
Top Level Ownership
Comprehensive plan instead of piecemeal project
Priority on high impact agency specific application
Interoperability of applications
Outsourcing of the project execution
Ongoing process of learning from best international practices
The main features were proposed were deployment of basic infrastructure were:
Basic Infrastructure: Provide the basic infrastructure to the all government departments and agencies which includes provision of Personal Computers, Intra Ministry Network, Intra Ministerial communication and office automation software. Connection of all government agencies to the Federal Government Data Centre for internal ministerial communication, internet and intranet services.
Common Applications: A range of applications those are common to most divisions has been identified named Internal Communication, Budget, Human Resource and File Management collaboration. Firstly these are to be implemented in the Ministry of Information Technology, afterwards in the other Divisions.
Agency Specific Applications and E- Services for citizens: every division will identify most frequent processes for the agency and to provide services to the citizens electronically. Then these processes and services to be implemented with support and sponsorship of Electronic Government Directorate but the ownership will be lying with the concerned agency.
Standards: A frame work developed by EGD will be available for all projects so that reference architectures, best practices and experiences and standard methodology are influenced for all projects.
Enabling Environment: This is the last propose feature by the EGD is to provide environment to Federal Government, Agency and EGD itself.
Federal Government: under the chairman ship of Prime Minister National Electronic Government Council (NEGC) will provide top of the leadership. All of the performance and progress of implementation of E-Government will be reviewed by NEGC. For this purpose a meeting will be conducted by NEGC after 4 months frequently and legislation, rule and regulation will be identified and made according to the needs.
Agency: Agency with help of Electronic Government Directorate will implement E-Government projects and will take the ownership of that project. All employees of BSP-5 and above will take proper training. Moreover an awareness campaign will be initiated in order to introduce E- Government to the employees and public.
Electronic Government Directorate: EGD will create a department attached to the Ministry of IT to grant it financial and organizational autonomy in order to overcome procedural delays.
Goals of Electronic Government:
E-Govt was launched in order to get these benefits and these are also the targets. The main objectives of E-Government for the Government of Pakistan are the following:
Increase Transparency and Accountability in decision-making
Increase Efficiency and Effectiveness of the Government
Enhance delivery of public service to citizens efficiently and cost effectively
Projects of Electronic Government:
After the creation of the Ministry of Information Technology in the year 2000, IT has been brought in the vanguard through Human Resource development, opening a number of IT universities and also IT departments in the existing institutions, strengthening and promoting the domestic IT industry through the Pakistan Software Export Board, through the provision of basic IT training to federal and provincial government employees through the Pakistan Computer Bureau and through automating various federal and provincial government organizations.
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Before the year 2002, there was no department of IT although telecom wing was existed. So in March 2002 IT and Telecom division was formed with in the Ministry of Science and Technology. A significant step was taken and IT and telecommunication were combined. The 1st t IT Policy and Action Plan of Pakistan was approved by the Federal Cabinet in the year 2000 and it was decided to pay much attention on the involvement of IT in almost all departments of Government.
To date, the Ministry of IT has sponsored several e-government projects. Some of the projects have been implemented by the Ministry of IT or its attached departments, while others have been implemented directly by the target organizations. It is important to note that the Ministry of IT has not only sponsored e-government projects at the Federal level, but also at the Provincial level. From the start of the fiscal year 2000-2001 through the end of 2003-2004, the Ministry of IT has utilized a PSDP budget of Rs. 4.82 billion out of which a total amount of Rs. 370 million has been utilized for e-government projects. The reason for this low utilization of development funds in the e government domain has been the lack of adequate capacity on both the “push” and the “pull” side of the technology equation. Since early 2004, the human resources capacity at EGD has been increased steadily, and a definite positive correlation has been observed in the form of increase in the Electronic Government Strategy& Five Year Plan For The Federal Government 2005, EGD (Electronic Government Directorate).
Pakistan’s IT policy for the year 2003 now includes a separate and independent section promoting to the commission an E-government body inside the Ministry of Information Technology build digital solution in order to digitize information and broadcast it publicly.
Here, projects initiated by Pakistan’s EGD (Electronic Government Directorate) are listed. It includes projects started at Federal level as well as Provincial level. These major steps taken in this regard are the development of information portals also.
National Data Warehouse
Graphical Information System
Web archive management
Electronic assessment System (Easy)
Motor Vehicle Registration
Specially, these include
Federal Government Official Portal
Punjab Province web portal.
Sindh Province Portal
Prison Management Information Systems
Land Record Management Information Systems
Computerization of Arms Licenses
Moreover Some important features these also:
E- File Tracking
Some of above mentioned web portals are online where as some of these are still under the process of development but already approved by the Government of Pakistan (GOP) to the software development companies. Mainly all of these projects are public oriented and focusing common persons. The Objective for the implementation of these projects is to use Internet for enhancing the quality of services to common man and provision of a single entry point of information both for public as well as government. These steps will lead to the public private partnerships as vendors are interested to be partners in the development cycle.
Land Records Management Information System Project (LRMISP):
Here is one project of Pakistani Government that it initiated in order to facilitate people of Pakistan through Electronic Government.
The important factor of human security is linked with security of assets through legal, institutional and social support. One of the key and common assets of people is land in Pakistan. The way of keeping land records is manual which has a lot of bugs.
Existing system of land record:
Present land record system in Pakistan is almost same as the system in practice during Akbar’s time. There are about 190 million land records purportedly having the details of about 50 million landowners in Pakistan. All of this record is in manual form. In urban areas, there are different housing societies operating at the moment, the land records related to that property will be in the custody of that society. However, in other cases, the land records come under the general purview of the Board of Revenue (BOR). The most junior official in the BOR is the Patwari (village accountant) who is generally a Grade-5 officer. This person deals with the common man and the original land records of a particular area are in the custody of the Patwaris, who are also the sole guardian of the records of government lands. There are approximately 14,000 Patwaris are working in Pakistan, each of whom is assigned responsibility over the original records of a particular area. A Patwari is required to keep and maintain the original land records with him and is authorized by the Board of Revenue to make changes relating to ownership, use and taxation in the original record.
In addition to the record about the ownership of the land asset the Patwari has 17 massive registers in his custody. One for instance, contains details of present landowning; in another, the Patwari records sale and transfer of land. Moreover, there is also the infamous Lal Kitaab or ‘Red Book’ in which the Patwari records unusual happenings on a particular property or area, such as an outbreak of bird flu, disease or death of cows etc. Further more. there is a register having details of crops grown on lands and a register of tenancies. One register contains the f
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