Planning in organization is the process of creating and maintaining a plan. It is a process of forecasting the developments with the preparation of scenarios of how to react to them is planning. In simple words planning is a primary stage of before doing any kind of work which starts by arising following questions in mind such as what to do? How to do? When to do? Who will do? And how the result would be evaluated.etc and this is the main concept of planning to identify the organization direction and future aspects.
Corporate level is the top most management which provides outline for all the other planning. The main
goal of this level is to consider which business and markets to go. It is a level to add value to the business
and to ensure that it is more than that of other companies in the same business.
Business unit level is the middle level management who indulge in planning process for 1-5yrs.The role
of the business unit level is to develop and maintain a competitive lead for the goods and services that
are produced. The strategy of the business level is to maintain the business against the competitors in
the market and also, ensuring that the business is ready to accommodate new technologies as well as the
Functional level is the lower divisional level of hierarchy who indulge in Operational planning for
1 year only. Operational planning specifies the necessary activities and plans for each department
(such as manufacturing, marketing etc.) and for each individual in achieving strategic plans.
Planning is done at three levels of the organisation. The top level managers who are the CEOs of the company make most of the strategic planning for the organisation. These types of planning are long term and have a directional specificity. They are mostly forÂ single use example budget plans etc. The middle level managers made both strategic and operational planningâ€™s for the organisation. The front line managers make most of the operational planning. These types of planning are short term which is only for one or 2 years, have a specific direction or detailed direction. Operational plans are also standing plans which provides a guidance for the tasks performed for example policies, rules and procedures.
Objective setting is an important part of organistaion. It is also known as MBO i.e management by objectives. It is a process where managers specify the objectives and plans to the employees. It also involves the process of reviewing and appraising the performance.
Barriers to planning occur when the company faces constant change. It acts as a hindrance in measuring the performance against the goals. Bad relation between the employer and employee reduce the efficiency of the planning process. Strict defined rules and regulations also harm the planning
Discuss the purpose of control:-
The control cycle
The different types of control processes
Barriers of control
Control is one of the main functions of management. It is an important function because it helps managers to check the deviation from organisational standards and goals. Through the process of controlling, managers
Cycle Take action Measure
If appropriate Performance
Desired results with
Can monitor the activities of the organization and can ensure that these activities are taking place according to the organizations preferred standards and goals
Planning process include
Comparing performance with the organizational standards.
Letâ€™s take an example, Savior machines are installed in the organization for getting information of incoming and outgoing of staff so that there would be no productivity loss. Camera is put to keep a check on employees work etc.
Feed forward controls: This type of control takes place to ensure that production runs smoothly before it begins. They are known as preliminary controls. An example of a feed forward control can be seen in a shoe factory, where the uncut leather for shoes and boots would be checked to make sure there were no flaws in it. Only the good quality leather would be used in the production process. Another example shows us that human inputs, as well as material inputs, can be controlled prior to processing. A public swimming pool operated by a local council may employ only people who are trained in resuscitation.
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Concurrent controls are used during the production process for e.g. a thermostat in a vat of hot oil turns off the heating element once the oil has risen to the right temperature. When the oil temperature drops, the thermostat automatically switches on the heat again. In this way, the oil is kept at a constant temperature perfect for cooking there food. Thus, this control system allows managers to correct the problem as soon as it arise i.e managers can see that a machine is becoming out of order and it is time to fix it.
This is the final type of control provides fact information which managers can use in the future. Once production is complete the outputs are reviewed. A common example with which most students will be familiar is that of completing an evaluation of a training course one the course is completed. The feedback give n by students will be used to improve the content and the presentation of the next course.
Barriers of control
Multicultural employees: – Sometimes the employees donâ€™t understand and thus donot work accordinginly. This happens because of language problem which leads to lose control on work and towards employees. Thus multicultural is a big barrier in control as the thinking between the employees differs.
Technology: – lack of technology is a barrier in control. For example: – if the camera in shop is not sufficient to capture all the part, then the employee or outsider may take the benefit of it.
Action orientation:- Planning without action is nothing, similar to that if the organisation wants to do the control he have to take action where late in action leads to disorder in the functioning of the organisation. Thus action sometimes becomes the barrier in controlling. For example, a person caught by doing something wrong in the company and management delayed in taking an action towards that employee, because of delayed in action the other employees started doing the same thing.
Therefore delay in action is also a barrier in control.
Discuss one type of planning and control that managers may apply in large organisation as compared to small organisations.
Organisations require plans that cover different time horizons. Planning and controlling in large organisation differ as compared to small ones because the large organisation has wider area and wider goal than small ones. Also the large organisation planning is for a long duration of time.For Example Strategic planning
Strategic plans are long-term needs and set comprehensive directions for an organization or sub unit. Top management planning of this scope involves determining objectives for the entire organization and then deciding on the actions and resource allocations to achieve them. A successful example, when many large businesses sought to diversify into unrelated areas. A successful oil firm might have acquired an office products company, or a successful cereal manufacturer might have acquired a clothing company. These decisions represent strategic choices regarding future directions for these companies and their use of scarce resources, instead of reinvesting in areas of core competency; they were spending available monies on unrelated and probably unfamiliar areas of business activity.
This type of planning is done in large organisation by the top managers whereas the area of small organisation is small as well as their fund.
Control is aimed at ensuring that plans are fulfilled and that performance targets are met. One of the controlling methods that managers used is inspection. Inspecting in regular interval of time is also a controlling process. For example in Feed forward control the managers has to keep an eye on workers to ensure that production runs smoothly before it begins which are also called as preliminary controls. An example of a feed forward control can be seen in a shoe factory, where the uncut leather for shoes and boots would be checked to make sure there were no flaws in it. Only the good-quality leather would be used in the production process. The key to feed forward control is that managers take the appropriate actions before the occurrence of a problem (such as poor-quality products, lost customers, lost revenue and so forth).
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