Technology means invention of techniques and tools. Emerging technology will change the world drastically. As the world continues to move, so does the improvement of technology. Every year discard light on improvements to yesterday’s devices and new innovations appearing on the scope. Many scientific events have become possible through technologies which assist humans to do many things we could not do otherwise. Day to day new technologies is emerging very rapidly. New technologies those are currently developing or will be developed over the next few years, and which will substantially alter the business and social environment. These include information technology, wireless data communication, bio-technologies, bio-informatics, man-machine communications, and advanced robotics. Emerging technologies are constantly being developed in order to meet the needs of companies and people. Some of emerging technologies for this year are Bio-electronics and wetware, energy harvesting, printed electronics, biofeedback and thought control of electronics, plastic memory, resistive RAM, various battery technologies, single cell analysis, and neutron control. Technology runs in the layers of society. It is one of the fuels that drive our lives. We would discuss two of emerging technologies and its impact on business and society briefly.
An Emerging Technology is a common term used to represent major technological developments, introducing new revolutions in the earlier technologies. Emerging Technologies are the technical innovations which signify progressive developments within a field for competitive advantage. Examples of present emerging technologies are Wireless Communication, Nano technology, Biotechnology, Artificial Intelligence Wireless Energy Transfer, robotics and etc.
Emerging Technologies has severe impact on business and society. However, the level of impact on business and society may vary from technology to technology. The way we do our business and live our lives would be much different if the technologies are not continuously changing. Because of Emerging technologies, business has been able to progress in such a way that we can communicate across the globe without leaving their respective offices. Example Web conferencing, Teleconferencing. The entertainment media has progressed because of advancement in technology only.
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The latest technological advances are not only limited to business but also has severe impact on society. Emerging technology has affected the way we live in many ways. Example: Medical technology, Global Positioning System (GPS) etc. Because of these technologies, we live our lives very comfortably. Technology has brought luxury in the life of the common man. It has saved human effort and time to a large extent. It has brought distant place closer and simplified information access. Emerging technologies has both pros and cons.
Emerging Technology – I
Wireless Communication means transfer of information from one place (location) to another place (location) without using wires or electrical conductors. The distance between the locations may be short or long. When the information transferring between two locations without using wires is clear then the term is referred as wireless. In general Wireless communication is considered as a branch of telecommunications.
The marginalized technology for wireless communication is wired communication. Wireless System has more propagation and transmission effects compared to wired system. In the olden days of wireless telegraphy, Marconi proved that wireless signals can be cross over the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. Now a day’s we are not using radio technology to cover large distances. Because of developments in digital electronics and signal processing, so many methods are there to overcome the differences of the mobile channel and thereby accelerating the growth of wireless communication. In addition advanced digital modulation techniques such as spread spectrum or multi carrier modulation (MCM) is suitable for wireless communication. Many new developments in wireless office networks (Hyper LAN or IEEE 802.11) involve spread spectrum transmission, and allow coexistence with other services, Bluetooth and many proprietary solutions use deregulated (ISM) radio bands. Spread spectrum transmission methods include slow and fast frequency hopping, direct sequence CDMA and multi carrier CDMA. Spread spectrum signals are relatively vigorous to multipath dispersion. These methods permit multiple users to share the same radio channel. In future Wireless communication networks or multimedia networks, the multiple access issue becomes significantly more essential than it is for circuit switched voice communication. The ALOHA, CSMA and ISMA all allow multiple users to share the same radio communication resources. How these protocols perform substantially for guided (wired) and an unguided (radio) channels? Performance of these protocols highly depends on the physical propagation characteristics of the channel. (Jean-Paul M.G. Linnartz, 1996-2004)
Examples of wireless communication are Cellular telephones and pagers, Cordless computer peripherals, Global Positioning System (GPS), Satellite television, Wireless gaming, Wireless networking and Consumer two way radio including General Mobile Radio Service and Citizens band radios. Cellular communication has modernized the communication industry.
In wireless communication Radio Frequency (RF) waves, Electromagnetic (EM) waves, Infrared rays (IR) and microwaves can carry over a part or the entire communication path.
Wireless communication can be via:
Radio frequency communication.
Microwave communication, for example line of sight propagation via highly directional antennas.
Infrared (IR) short range communication, for example from remote controls or via Infrared Data Association (IDA). (Wireless Communication, Accessed on April 5th, 2010)
Radio Communication system
Land Mobile Radio or Professional Mobile Radio: TETRA, P25, Open Sky, EDACS, DMR.
Cordless telephony: DECT (Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications)
Cellular Networks: 0G, 1G, 2G, 3G Beyond 3G (4G), Future wireless
Short – range point to point communication: Wireless microphones, Remote controls, AIRD, RFID (Radio Frequency Identification), Wireless USB, DSRC (Dedicated Short Range Communications), near field communication.
Wireless Networks: Wireless LAN (WLAN), IEEE branded as Wi-Fi and Hiper LAN, Wireless Metropolitan Area networks (WMAN) and Broad band fixed Access (BWA) (LMDS, WiMAX, AIDAAS and HiperMAN).
Wireless sensor networks: Bluetooth, TransferJet, ZigBee, EnOcean, Personal area networks, Ultra-wideband (UWB from WiMedia Alliance).
To make available of a backup communication link in case of a regular network failure.
To cover a distance away from the capabilities of distinctive cabling.
To connect portable or transitory workstations.
To surmount situations where standard cabling is not easy or economically unfeasible.
To remotely connect mobile users or networks.
Inter and Intra cell interference
In wireless networks the above disadvantages are present and considerably influence the performance, such as throughput, stability and delay for a wireless ALOHA-net. Also, the performance seen by each participating terminal differs from the average performance of the network and extremely depends on the terminals location. (Jean-Paul M.G. Linnartz, 1996-2004)
Two common assumptions for wire line networks must be refined for the realistic analysis of the performance of wireless networks:
If there is no collision occurs simultaneously on the same channel then the data packet is received successfully.
Data packets will be lost if they are involved in a collision.
Some specific solutions are existing effectively to resolve collisions; they include the tree algorithm, the stack algorithm and dynamic frame length ALOHA. The combined use of CDMA and random access directs to new system concepts. (Jean-Paul M.G. Linnartz, 1996-2004)
The main application of wireless communication is omnipresent network connectivity.
Point-to-multi point communication,
Television remote control,
Cellular telephone (phones and modems)
Computer interface devices and
Other wireless networks.
Impact of Wireless communication on business:
Wireless communication technology can have a significant impact on business. Wireless communication is also known as Wi-Fi (Wireless fidelity) or WLAN (wireless local area network), uses low-power radio waves to transmit data over distances from one device to another without the use of wires, allowing senders and recipients to access information while on the move. Especially for business, Wi-Fi is invaluable as it allows the boss, who travels frequently, to stay in touch with his employees back at the office. Because of Wireless communication more individuals started work from home. The rapid development of wireless communication is primarily through cell phones and wireless internet. The wireless communication revolution is bringing fundamental changes to data networking, telecommunications, and is making integrated networks a reality. By freeing the user from the cord, personal communication networks, wireless LANs, mobile radio networks and cellular systems, harbour the promise of fully distributed mobile computing and communications, anytime, anywhere. E-mail and company web sites are advantageous communication technology for businesses. Businesses that use these electronic communication tools are able to expand their market place.
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Because of raising growth of wireless technologies, allow access to the networks for the workplace community. So that customers, clients and employees want network and service from different places of the company. There has been considerable interest lately for all businesses to set up mobile computing workplaces for their employees and also mobile computing for other functions of the business from distributors, suppliers and service providers. Recently industries have made significant progress in wireless technology to determine some constraints. Because of this wireless technologies become popular. Some of these constraints have included different standards, low bandwidth, and high infrastructure and service cost. Wireless technologies can both support the organizational company mission and offer cost effective solutions. Because of Wireless technologies so many new applications are there such as to connect computers, to permit remote monitoring and data acquisition, to provide control and security, and to provide a solution for environments where wires may not be the best implementation. (My Wireless Business Accessed on 19 Mar 2010)
Overusing technology in business communication can lead to an overload in overusing communication. Messages began to lose importance with communication overload. Personal use of communication technology in the workplace lost time for businesses. Creating rules for use of communication technology reduces the amount of lost time a business suffers from this problem.
Impact of Wireless Communication on Society:
The development of wireless technology and wireless devices accessing of information can be possible approximately anywhere and people can be in touch with one another in various places. Wireless technology has both advantages and disadvantages. Wireless Technology is responsible for creating self doubt, disrupting relationships and as a tool for manipulation. However, the market for wireless devices, whether there is everywhere mobile phone, PDAs or wireless enabled computers and appliances, continues to grow and develop with new technologies emerging every day.
The rapid development of wireless communication is primarily through cell phones and wireless internet over the past 15 years. Because of mobile phone so many changes in society. It has changed the way of communication between the people. In a home atmosphere, wireless technology simplifies various tasks which can eventually lead to less stress. A wireless network can do many things or plenty of work in a cool environment. Most inventions in history affect society for decades following its introduction in to the consumer market. Sometimes the consequences and side effects of a product do not become apparent until much later when there is more time for the social impact to catch up with the widespread use of the product. This is no exception with wireless communications because the social impacts have not been fully discovered. (Markoff, 2004)
Emerging Technology – II
Artificial Intelligence (AI):
Artificial intelligence is the study of how to make computers behave intelligently. Artificial Intelligence is the present generation computer technology. In simple Artificial Intelligence means those computer program and software which would think of its own as an average Human being does. It is related to the similar task of using computers to know human intelligence, but AI does not have to confine itself to methods that are biologically visible.
In other way artificial intelligence is the branch of computer science and the intelligence of machines that aims to create it. Text books define artificial intelligence as the study and designing of intelligent agents, where an intelligent agent is considered as a system that perceives its environment and takes actions to maximize its ability of success. John McCarthy, who invented the term artificial intelligence, defines it as the science and e3ngineering of making intelligent machines.
The marginalized technology for artificial intelligence is human decision and human analysis. Computer programs have plenty of speed and memory but their capabilities correspond to the intellectual mechanisms that program designers understand well enough to put in programs.
One of AI’s first projects was the development of mathematical language much like a computer language, in which researchers could encode assertions. If the language was rigorous enough, computer algorithms could be able to comb through assertions written in it and calculate all the logically valid inferences. Once they had developed such languages, AI researchers started using them to encode lot of commonsense assertions, which they sorted in huge databases.
Moore’s law states that for every 18 months the number transistors on the chip will be doubled, processing power doubles while cost hold constant. In fact, when computers were first built, people proposed them for doing nothing but mindless computations, but as the development of newer technologies, computers eventually were limited to arithmetic anymore, they are now called Artificial intelligence. The computer technology has changed the face of the world. Computers can store, organize and handle enormous amounts of data. They can process huge amounts of information. Computers have given increase to the software industry, one of the most progressive industries of the world. (An Introduction to AI, Accessed on Mar 25, 2010)
Types of AI: Strong AI and Weak AI
Strong AI: A computer running suitable software actually is intelligent.
Weak AI: Intelligence is something that only biological systems can posses. The best that can be accomplished with a machine is to stimulate intelligence.
Unemotional consideration of problems means human mind may have emotions. When people take decisions, sometimes those decisions are based on emotion rather than logic, so it may be wrong decision. That thing could not be happen with AI.
AI replaces human, means people believe that machine work accurately than human. So human become more dependent on AI and trust the results and decisions made by AI. This implies that more jobs are done by AI machines and the fewer are offered to human. Because of unemployment rate, it is likely that more people will be losing their jobs competing with machines. Due to this an economic destruction will occur and because of this an increase in crime rate and starvation. Economic destruction is not only because of using AI but also Technology that could be harmful to minds of small children.
Optical character recognition
Computer Vision, virtual reality and image processing
Game theory and strategic planning
Game artificial intelligence and Computer game boot
Hybrid intelligent system
Diagnosis (artificial intelligence)
Natural language processing, Translation and Chatter Bots
Behaviour based robotics
The impact of Artificial Intelligence on business:
Evolution of artificial intelligence and information technology has effect the business in order to improve their performance. Due to information technologies information gathering, communication between the people will be fast. So the results were very accurate. AI is essential for economy and now is one of the main sources of business and employment. It also gives an additional form of communication and exchange of information which was not accessible before.
Technology is relevant in politics as governments are trying to adopt IT for making improvements in the storage of data, and finally it is essential for economy as now it is one of the main sources of business and employment.
On the information superhighway, the internet, the world is a very small place and distance, nationality, income are irrelevances, but the existence of such a network with high speed, worldwide communications together with satellites, has meant that news, ideas and other information can be spread, world-wide in the blink of an eye and with this now possible, some of the traditional constraints have been loosened. The development of the internet means can now work from their homes.
The so called information superhighway makes a variety of different services and types of information available at the touch of a button, to the point where it’s next to impossible to avoid exposure to one kind or another. It happens very often that the information you get on the Internet, especially with search engines is too much. In the web you may easily get lost when you are looking for something as you are usually beleaguered by an amount of information that is misdirected and irrelevant for you. With the internet you cannot have the same experience as for instance with a book, where the material is selected and organized with some coherence. There is no way to distinguish the brilliant from the trash, you can never be sure that what you are reading is true. (Harvard Business School Publishing May 2005)
The impact of Artificial Intelligence on Society:
Artificial Intelligence has been developed for many years and is already widely used in human society. Ex. Hospitals use Artificial intelligence machines to diagnose patients.
The invention of the computer and its associated technologies has a major impact on many areas of our everyday lives. Technology affects everyone in the modern society in the aspects of work and leisure activities. Technology is one of the major energetic force of the future, is altering our lives and shaping our future at rates unprecedented in history. Due to different technologies we are satisfied with our lives. Technology is essential for our society, its elaboration, and production at the centre of the cultural, political and economic fields, which are the basis of the society. Human beings solve most of their troubles by means of fast, instinctive judgements rather than the aware, step-by-step subtraction that early AI study was able to model. Artificial Intelligence has made some progress at replicated this type of sub figurative problem solving; personified agent approaches stress the importance of sensor motor skills to advanced reasoning neural net research attempts to replicate the structure of inside human and animals brain that give rise to this talent. (Harvard Business School Publishing May 2005)
As we discuss two types of emerging technologies (wireless communication and artificial intelligence) and their impact on business and society. Because of emerging technologies, we are doing many which would otherwise not possible.
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