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Exploring The History Of 1G And 3G Information Technology Essay

Paper Type: Free Essay Subject: Information Technology
Wordcount: 3149 words Published: 1st Jan 2015

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As mention of 4g, that is being sure to talk about 1G, 2G, and 3G. Because if not them then won’t have 4g technology today. For example, if u not studies form1 how can u study form 4? There is some short introduce for the evolution of wireless standards.

Firstly, we talks about 1G technology. 1G stands for first-generation telephone wireless or cell phone technology. At the early day 1980’s, the cell phone wireless technology people were using that is analog telecommunications standards (Sharma, 2009). But this kind of wireless standards or system only can provided geographical regions area service, and the impression of voice call was very bad for example u might hear background noise and the lousy compression used by the codec takes a toll. Beside it, privacy also not good which mean easy overhear by other people. Moreover, user’s connecting receive range is also limited (ssskkkkkk, 2010).

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Two standard or system of 1G is NMT and AMPS. NMT stands for Nordic Mobile Telephone usually used in Nordic countries, Eastern Europe and Russia (Lomba Mai, 2005). Another is AMPS which is Advanced Mobile Phone System often used in the United States (Sharma, 2009).1G was continued until being replaced by digital (2G) transmission in 1992. The main difference between two technology (1G,2G) is that the radio signals that 1G networks use are analog, while 2G networks are digital (Wikipedia,2010).

2G refer to Second generation telephone wireless technology. Features of 2G are slow transmission speed of data which is about 9.6kb per second and allow user SMS messaging, voice mail and basic emails (Seemab, 2010). 2G technologies can be divided into TDMA-based and CDMA-based standards, it depending on the type of multiplexing used. GSM (TDMA-based) which is developed in Europe but used worldwide are the main standard of 2G. Another standards IS-95 aka cdmaOne, (CDMA-based, commonly referred as simply CDMA in the US) usually used in USA and some part of Asia such as Korea. (Sharma, 2009) Nowadays, most basic cell phone or some old model cell phone is features with 2G technology.

Until 1997, 2G was operated in almost 100 countries. It becomes a major trend or standard in Europe and Asia on 1997. But the transmission data speed of 2G is really too slow, it was exactly the same with the 2G first introduce. At that time (1992), people are only sending the basic word documents in Internet. On 1997, people are not only using internet to transfer word documents but other multi-media item. Apparently, the speed was outdated. (ssskkkkkk, 2010)

We always say ‘Demands make supply’. Due to the demand of the faster transfer speed, with it came the very familiar GPRS which is General Packet Radio Service. GPRS make the cell phone technology better than before. Because it provides the faster transfer speed of data and better service compared to 2G (Seemab, 2010). GPRS also describe as 2.5G. GPRS can provide a data rates of 56kb per second up to 114kb per second. It allows people SMS messaging, Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS), Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) access, emailing, web browsing and surfing (CDG.org, 2010).

Whenever involve technology, demand for faster transmission won’t never and ever end. In order to meet the requirement of market and user, mobile technology developers came up with the new technology which is EDGE (Seemab, 2010). EDGE is the short of Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution. Same as his’s name, this kind of technology is developed by GSM. At that time, EDGE was just a transition technology between the current technology (GPRS) and future 3G technology (ssskkkkkk, 2010). The main attributes were phone calls, fax, voice mails, rich emailing, maps and navigation, web browsing and a speed of 64 kb per second up to 144 kb per second (Seemab, 2010).

At years 2002, 3G technology was available. The 3G tech introduced UMTS networks (Seemab, 2010). The 3G technology allows people transfer both voice data (a telephone call) and multi-media data/information such as video, exchanging email, and instant messaging simultaneously (Sharma, 2009). Characterise of 3G is provide high speed data transmission. Generally, 3G is the combination of wireless communication and internet media communication (ssskkkkkk, 2010).  Application services include wide-area wireless voice telephone, mobile Internet access, video calls and mobile TV, all in a mobile environment (Wikipedia,2010).

The main difference between 2G and 3G is on transfer speed of speech and data. 3G speed is much higher than 2G. 3G can provide the better video conferencing, internet access, intranet access, and interactive app sharing on worldwide. In order to meet those services, wireless technology has to be support on many type data transfer rate. Moreover, 3G also provide TV streaming, HSPA (High Speed Packet Access), global roaming and a speed of 144 kb per second for cell phone (Seemab, 2010).

3G standard are specifics by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) and it called International Mobile Telecom System-2000(IMT-2000). Due to there are many type of different standard. There are five different standards grouped together under the IMT-2000 label which is UWC-136, DECT, TD-CDMA/TD-SCDMA, CDMA2000, and W-CDMA. (Geneva, 2000)

Definition of 4G

As we having some knowledge and know about 1G, 2G, 3G technology through above essay already. Now we can talk about 4G. When talking about 4G, first question come out and we always wanted to ask is ”What is 4G?”

4G refers to the fourth generation of cellular wireless standards that will supercede the third generation. It is a successor of cellular wireless standard families. 4G is an extension that basic on 3G, it will be more services offer and more bandwidth compared to 3G. (FreeWiMaxinfo.com, 2010)

4G technology is expected to provide a comprehensive and secure all-IP based solution and impose the currently radio spectrum more efficiently. That will provide user with a speeds that same with a cable-modem. Facilities such as IP telephony, gaming services, and streamed multimedia may be provided to users and ultra-broadband Internet access. . Moreover, support high quality audio/video streaming over end to end Internet Protocol. (SearchMobileComputing.com, 2010)

After the successful fully implementation, 4G are expected to enable pervasive computing that can simultaneously connect to diversify high-speed networks and also facilities perfectly handoffs all over the geographical regions. In order to cater the need of users in homes, public buildings and offices, many mobile technology developers possibly utilize coverage enhancement technologies such as femtocell and picocell, to guarantee competently allocates equally and secure connection network for mobile users who are in global roaming or who are in farther service areas. And 4G mobile communication will provide a speed 100 Mbps for mobile users and up to 1 Gbps over fixed stations (FreeWiMaxinfo.com, 2010).

The current 4G technology that is available already provides speeds that are up to four times faster than what is available through 3G. (Williamson, 2010).This new generation of wireless is intended to complement and replace the 3G systems, perhaps in 1 to 3 years (Ibrahim, 2010).TeliaSonera are the first operator in the world that launches 4G services (Karlberg, 2009).

Kinds of 4G Tech

Generally, there are two kinds of 4G technology which is LTE and WiMax(802.16m).

LTE ( 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) )

This kind of technology often branded ‘4G’.Through this is a pre-4G technology, it is related to 3G but it is not 3G. LTE stands for Long Term Evolution/3GPP Long Term Evolution. When LTE first release, it doesn’t fully comply with the 4G requirements. LTE is such a network that treats everything that is transmitted by LTE as data, even is voice. On theoretical, LTE offer a high speed data transfer rate up to 100MB per second on downloading and 50MB per second while uploading, , provided that a 20 MHz channel is used (Seemab, 2010).

The worldwide first publicly facilities LTE-service was opened in the two Scandinavian capitals Stockholm (Ericsson system) and Oslo (a Huawei system) on the 14 December 2009, and branded 4G. The user terminals were developed by Samsung. The several worldwide carriers and two major mobile carriers in USA also have announced their plan which is plans to convert their network to LTE beginning in 2011 (Maistre, 2009).

In the fall of 2009, 3GPP organization publishes LTE Advanced (Long-term-evolution Advanced) and stated that LTE-Advanced expected to be released in 2012. The purpose of LTE-Advanced is to meet and cater the requirements of the International Telecommunication Union and make some improve and adjusted with LTE system. Beside it, LTE Advanced will provide similar speed as 4G WiMax. (Parkvall, Dahlman, Furuskär, Jading, Olsson, Wänstedt, and Zangi, 2008).


WiMax stands for Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access. The flavor of WiMax that qualifies as 4G is the 802.16m. It is better to say that it with Wi-Fi technology. It is capable of 30 miles transmission. It provides a peak data rates of 128mb per second downlink and 56MB per second uplink. WiMax  is backed by Clearwire, a firm whose majority owner is Sprint Nextel. Sprint Nextel are the one of mobile phone carrier that facilities and accept WiMax, branded as a ‘4G’ network. Currently, Clearwire and Sprint hold their WiMax network in around 27 cities. Nowadays Sprint doesn’t has intend to possess a 4G phone, but they have releases WiMax capable router. And they planned to launch WiMAX over 4G broadband mobile networks in United States (Seemab, 2010).

The WiMax standard is an open standard; therefore, it is less costly to build equipment for it. This is why WiMax networks are cheaper than LTE. You can access to the Internet wirelessly if you live in a city that provide 4G and WiMAX,. But maybe you do need a subscriber unit, and these can come in several forms. On the other hand you can purchase one home models if you wanted to use WiMax in your home (Williamson, 2010).

Reason of purchasing or upgrading to a 4G phone

I would consider purchasing or upgrading to a 4G phone. Because of

Faster speed

As people study the original purpose of 4G is to improve communication cellular phones and other mobile devices and wireless Internet access rate, so a faster speed of wireless communications is the most impressive features of 4G technology that attract me. The first generation(1G) provide analog voice services only; second generation(2G) which is digital mobile communication system, the transmission rate is only 9.6Kbps, up to 32Kbps, such as PHS; and the third generation mobile communication system(3G) data transfer rates up to 2Mbps. According to the estimation by experts, the fourth generation mobile communication system (4G) can achieve 10Mbps to 20Mbps, or even a maximum speed that up to 100Mbps per second on transmit wireless information (Seemab, 2010).

Network spectrum more widely

In order to cater the speed of 100Mb per second, to make 4G network communication bandwidth more widely compared to 3G cellular networks. Mobile technology developers must make a significant improve and research based currently technology (3G).  According to research 4G Communications, AT & T executives say that each channel in 4G technology may possess 100MHz spectrum, which is almost up to 20 times faster than W-CDMA (3G) (ssskkkkkk, 2010).

Good compatibility

4G mobile communication systems to achieve global standards so that all users of mobile operators to enjoy a common 4G service, truly a mobile phone anywhere in the world can communicate (Usko, 2007).


General speaking, 4G cell phone features, has not simply define as “phone” category anymore. Because phone call just a one of the multiple function of 4G cell phone only. In my opinion, the future 4G mobile phones should be considered as a mini computer. Future 4G cell phones not only allow user communicate with people anytime, anywhere, but also can download the two-way transmission of information, pictures, images, and definitely you can play the online game with a people not matter where they location.

Higher capability

4G mobile communication systems are more intelligent. Not only the 4G communication terminal equipment is more intelligent design and operation. More importantly is many of 4G mobile phones will provide those function that u can’t even imagine. For instance 4G mobile phone may according to the environment, time and other factors automatic remind the phone’s owner what matter need to do, or what should not to do. Or 4G mobile phone may directly download the cinema’s information such as movie time, tile, and seat availability. We can use that information to buying movie ticket online, not need go cinema see whether got seat or not. 4G mobile phones also can be seen as is a portable TV for watching some live sport competition or events. (ssskkkkkk, 2010).

Strong flexibility.

4G mobile communication system using adaptive intelligence technology to let them has a capable of carry out the allocation of resources to the communication process of changing the size of the business flow and dealt with accordingly. And also to cater the communication requirement of smart signal processing technology to a different channel conditions, the complex environment to send and receive normal signals. (Usko, 2007).

Coexistence of multiple types of users

4G mobile communication systems will automatic change according to dynamic changes in adaptive processing and channel conditions. Furthermore, in order to meet the needs of the system multi-user, that is possible for both low-speed and high-speed users coexist with each other simultaneously (Usko, 2007).

High self-organizing and adaptive network and mobility

4G mobile communication system has a structure of self-organizing capabilities with fully autonomous and adaptive network. This is to solve the problem that will occur due to keep changing on environment and user needs (Usko, 2007).

Cheaper cost or Price

The 4G not only solve the compatibility problems with the 3G, so that more of the existing communication users can easily upgrade to 4G communications. 4G consists of many high technologies. These technologies ensure that 4G communications can provide a very flexibility in system operation, compared to other technology 4G communication is easy to deploy much more rapidly (ssskkkkkk, 2010). As more and more 4G are being introduced by mobile carrier, operators who have rolled out 4G networks are giving great discounts on the prices of 4G devices. These devices are priced competitively to 3G devices, so that you won’t have to spend a lot to get one. (Williamson, 2010).

There are the factors that why I would purchasing or upgrading to a 4G phone

Reason of NOT TO purchasing or upgrading a 4G phone

I would not consider purchasing or upgrading to a 4G phone. Because of

Limited capacity

About the future of 4G communications most impressive part is transfer rate of communication than it will be greatly enhanced. The broadband speed will achieve 100MB per second; it is up to 1 million times faster than the 2009 latest Mobile which is 10KB per second transfer rate. However, the speed of mobile phone will be limited by the capacity of Communication system. If the capacity of communication system is limited which mean the more phone user the slower speed According to expert analysis, 4G phones will be difficult to achieve the theoretical speed. If can’t achieve the speed that estimate, then the use 4G phone will be greatly reduced. But this only based on research, only the time will tell us the fact (ssskkkkkk, 2010).

Facilities difficult to update

Before the deployment 4G, covering most of the world’s wireless infrastructure is based on established third-generation mobile communication system, and if wanted transfer to the fourth generation of communications technology, then many of the global wireless infrastructure need to changes and updates. Those change will definitely bound to slow down the speed 4G enter to the communication market. We might need to wait very long period to fully utilize 4G phone (ssskkkkkk, 2010).

Easy to conflict and get cheated

Actually, nowadays many corporation and companies are using fact that 3G technology is very easy to come by these days to their advantage. Normally, when you sign up for a 4G phone, you will actually get both 4G and 3G. Your connection will stay on the faster network with more bandwidth until you get out of range of the signal. When that happens, it will automatically switch over to a 3G network. And sometimes companies used to cheat us; they provide 3G but in told us it was in terms of 4G (Williamson, 2010).

There are the factors that why I would not purchasing or upgrading to a 4G phone.


As conclusion, the 4G technology is are very widely and there are too much of detail can’t fully discuss on this assignment. There is just an overall review of 4G technology. From that information, we can know that 4G technology is very powerful and his speeds are extremely fast. TeliaSonera are the first operator in the world that launches 4G services at Dec 2009 and they are using LTE (Torstensson, 2009). From there, we can know that 4G actually were available in the market already, but it just not fully develop and utilize. As far as I know, 4G will be fully utilized on, perhaps in 1 to 2 years. When reach that level, 4G will be able to provide 100 Mbps for mobile users and up to 1 Gbps over fixed stations. That is a significant speed. And I would definitely purchasing or upgrade to a 4G phone, because 4G are very strong intelligence, adaptability and flexibility. And there is only some technical problem and I belief that it will be solving through time. Beside it there are almost no disadvantages of 4G.

The key concept of projected 4G is achieving worldwide integration. Future wireless networks need to support many different IP multimedia applications to allow sharing of resources among multiple users. 4G are the best candidate of fulfil the goal of PCC (personal computing and communication) which is vision that affordably provides high data rates everywhere over a wireless network.


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