The presentation of the similarities and differences between relational modeling of data and the object oriented modeling of data is of great importance both for data base designers and for users. By being well acquainted with the relational model and by noting the similarities and differences between the two approaches to data modeling, designers will be able to turn into account and to make use of the already acquired experience as an important basis for understanding and learning the methodology of designing object oriented databases. At the time if designers know the similarities and differences between these two approaches they have the possibility to convert a relational model into an object oriented model and inversely
Informatica Economica Journal. 01/01/2007;
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What is the difference between odbms rdbms and ordbms?
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The differences between the three approaches Table 1: A Comparison of Database Management Systems Criteria RDBMS ODBMS ORDBMS Defining standard SQL2 ODMG-2.0 SQL3 (in process) Support for object-oriented features Does not support; It is difficult to map program object to the database Supports extensively Limited support; mostly to new data types Usage Easy to use OK for programmers; some SQL access for end users Easy to use except for some extensions Support for complex relationships Does not support abstract datatypes Supports a wide variety of datatypes and data with complex inter-relationships Supports Abstract datatypes and complex relationships Performance Very good performance Relatively less performance Expected to perform very well Product maturity Relatively old and so very mature This concept is few years old and so relatively mature Still in development stage so immature. The use of SQL Extensive supports SQL OQL is similar to SQL, but with additional features like Complex objects and object-oriented features. SQL3 is being developed with OO features incorporated in it Advantages Its dependence on SQL, relatively simple query optimization hence good performance It can handle all types of complex applications, reusability of code, less coding Ability to query complex applications and ability to handle large and complex applications Disadvantages Inability to handle complex applications Low performance due to complex query optimization, inability to support large-scale systems Low performance in web applications Support from vendors It is considered to be highly successful so the market size is very large but many vendors are moving towards ORDBMS Presently lacking vendor support due to vast size of RDBMS market All major RDBMS vendors are after this so has very good future
OODBMS (Object Oriented Database Management System) Basics
by Bridewin, on Sun Nov 1, 2009 7:22am PST
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An object database (also object-oriented database) is a database model in which information is represented in the form of objects as used in object-oriented programming.
Object databases are a niche field within the broader DBMS market dominated by relational database management systems (RDBMS). Object databases have been considered since the early 1980s and 1990s but they have made little impact on mainstream commercial data processing, though there is some usage in specialized areas.
When database capabilities are combined with object-oriented (OO) programming language capabilities, the result is an object database management system (ODBMS).
Today’s trend in programming languages is to utilize objects, thereby making OODBMS ideal for OO programmers because they can develop the product, store them as objects, and can replicate or modify existing objects to make new objects within the OODBMS. Information today includes not only data but video, audio, graphs, and photos which are considered complex data types. Relational DBMS aren’t natively capable of supporting these complex data types. By being integrated with the programming language, the programmer can maintain consistency within one environment because both the OODBMS and the programming language will use the same model of representation. Relational DBMS projects using complex data types would have to be divided into two separate tasks: the database model and the application.
As the usage of web-based technology increases with the implementation of Intranets and extranets, companies have a vested interest in OODBMS to display their complex data. Using a DBMS that has been specifically designed to store data as objects gives an advantage to those companies that are geared towards multimedia presentation or organizations that utilize computer-aided design (CAD).
Some object-oriented databases are designed to work well with object-oriented programming languages such as Python, Perl, Java, C#, Visual Basic .NET, C++, Objective-C and Smalltalk; others have their own programming languages. ODBMSs use exactly the same model as object-oriented programming languages.
The main benefit of creating a database with objects as data is speed.
OODBMS are faster than relational DBMS because data isn’t stored in relational rows and columns but as objects.
Objects have a many to many relationship and are accessed by the use of pointers.
Pointers are linked to objects to establish relationships.
Another benefit of OODBMS is that it can be programmed with small procedural differences without affecting the entire system.
This is most helpful for those organizations that have data relationships that aren’t entirely clear or need to change these relations to satisfy the new business requirements.
This ability to change relationships leads to another benefit which is that relational DBMS can’t handle complex data models while OODBMS can.
Slower and more difficult to formulate than relational.
Lack of interoperability with a great number of tools/features that are taken for granted in the SQL world, including but not limited to industry standard connectivity, reporting tools, OLAP tools, and backup and recovery standards.
Lack a formal mathematical foundation, unlike the relational model, and this in turn leads to weaknesses in their query support.
Object databases based on persistent programming acquired a niche in application areas such as engineering and spatial databases, telecommunications, and scientific areas such as high energy physics and molecular biology. They have made little impact on mainstream commercial data processing, though there is some usage in specialized areas of financial services. It is also worth noting that object databases held the record for the World’s largest database (being the first to hold over 1000 terabytes at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center) and the highest ingest rate ever recorded for a commercial database at over one Terabyte per hour.
Another group of object databases focuses on embedded use in devices, packaged software, and real-time systems.
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Some Pros & Cons of Relational Databases
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The relational model for databases provides the basic DBMS characteristics. In addition, an RDBMS also conforms to Codd’s model.
Relational Database Characteristics
Dr. Codd established 12 rules to which a DBMS must conform to be considered relational. DBMSs vary in the way in which they comply with these rules, however, commercial relational databases generally conform to these rules.
Strengths of RDBMS
Flexible and well-established.
Sound theoretical foundation and use over many years has resulted in stable, standardized products available.
Standard data access language through SQL.
Costs and risks associated with large development efforts and with large databases are well understood.
The fundamental structure, i.e., a table, is easily understood and the design and normalization process is well defined.
Weaknesses of RDBMS
Performance problems associated with re-assembling simple data structures into their more complicated real-world representations.
Lack of support for complex base types, e.g., drawings.
SQL is limited when accessing complex data.
Knowledge of the database structure is required to create ad hoc queries.
Locking mechanisms defined by RDBMSs do not allow design transactions to be supported, e.g., the “check in” and “check out” type of feature that would allow an engineer to modify a drawing over the course of several working days.
The Advantages of a Relational Database Management System
By Deborah Lee Soltesz, eHow Contributing Writer
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RDBMSs provide user access control and data integrity features.
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RDBMSs provide user access control and data integrity features.
A Relational Database Management System (RDBMS) is a software system that provides access to a relational database. The software system is a collection of software applications that can be used to create, maintain, manage and use the database. A “relational database” is a database structured on the “relational” model. Data are stored and presented in a tabular format, organized in rows and columns with one record per row.
The table format is simple and easy for database users to understand and use. RDBMSs provide data access using a natural structure and organization of the data. Database queries can search any column for matching entries.
RDBMSs allow multiple database users to access a database simultaneously. Built-in locking and transactions management functionality allow users to access data as it is being changed, prevents collisions between two users updating the data, and keeps users from accessing partially updated records.
Authorization and privilege control features in an RDBMS allow the database administrator to restrict access to authorized users, and grant privileges to individual users based on the types of database tasks they need to perform. Authorization can be defined based on the remote client IP address in combination with user authorization, restricting access to specific external computer systems.
RDBMSs provide access to the database through a server daemon, a specialized software program that listens for requests on a network, and allows database clients to connect to and use the database. Users do not need to be able to log in to the physical computer system to use the database, providing convenience for the users and a layer of security for the database. Network access allows developers to build desktop tools and Web applications to interact with databases.
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The relational database model is not the fastest data structure. RDBMS advantages, such as simplicity, make the slower speed a fair trade-off. Optimizations built into an RDBMS, and the design of the databases, enhance performance, allowing RDBMSs to perform more than fast enough for most applications and data sets. Improvements in technology, increasing processor speeds and decreasing memory and storage costs allow systems administrators to build incredibly fast systems that can overcome any database performance shortcomings.
RDBMSs feature maintenance utilities that provide database administrators with tools to easily maintain, test, repair and back up the databases housed in the system. Many of the functions can be automated using built-in automation in the RDBMS, or automation tools available on the operating system.
RDBMSs support a generic language called “Structured Query Language” (SQL). The SQL syntax is simple, and the language uses standard English language keywords and phrasing, making it fairly intuitive and easy to learn. Many RDBMSs add non-SQL, database-specific keywords, functions and features to the SQL language.
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