Before we discuss about how the IP works at the network layer to provide connectionless, best effort service to the upper layers, we should understand what the role of IP is. To help us more understand about the question.
Below are a few explanation of the important role in the question.
The Internet Protocol (IP) – IP is a protocol used for communicating data across a packet-switched internetwork using the Internet Protocol Suite, also referred to as TCP/IP, while the connectionless service is provided by IP version 4.
IP version 4 – is just design with limited lower overhead to ensure it deliver speed.
The Network Layer -It is the 3rd layer of the seven-layer OSI model of computer networking. The network layer responds to service requests from the transport layer and issues service requests to the data link layer.
Upper layer – The last 3 layers of the OSI model, Session, Presentation and Application layer are referred to the “Upper” layers. These layers are responsible for applications communicating between hosts. None of the upper layers know anything about networking or network addresses.
Connectionless/Best effort Service – communication between two network end-user in which a message can be sent from sender to receiver without knowing of the receiver.
The Internetwork Protocol (IP) provides a best effort network layer service for connecting computers to form a computer network. Each computer is identified by one or more globally unique IP address. The network layer PDUs are known as either “packets” or “datagram”. Each packet carries the IP address of the sending computer and also the address of the intended recipient or recipients of the packet. Other management information is also carried. The IP network service transmits datagram’s between intermediate nodes using IP routers. The routers themselves are simple; since no information is stored concerning the datagram’s which are forwarded on a link. The most complex part of an IP router is concerned with determining the optimum link to use to reach each destination in a network. This process is known as “routing”. Although this process is computationally intensive, it is only performed at periodic intervals.
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An IP network normally uses a dynamic routing protocol to find alternate routes whenever a link becomes unavailable. This provides considerable robustness from the failure of either links or routers, but does not guarantee reliable delivery. Some applications are happy with this basic service and use a simple transport protocol known as the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) to access this best effort service.
Internet Protocol provides in Version 4 (IPv4) is to ensure that the IP packet header is error-free through computation of a checksum at the routing nodes. This has the side-effect of discarding packets with bad headers on the spot, and cause the lost of data packet. The design of internet protocol is one of the reason cause connectionless services. It assumes that the network infrastructure is inherently unreliable at any single network element or transmission medium and that it is dynamic in terms of availability of links and nodes. Without any central monitoring or performance measurement facility exists that tracks or maintains the state of the network. So in order to easy the work, the intelligence in the network is purposely mostly located in the end nodes of each data transmission. Because of it, the network only can provide the best transmission and it was call the best-effort protocol.
They are stateless having no previously defined protocol.
It is easily accessible.
Fast deliver Speed
The lack of reliability allows any of the following fault events to occur:
lost data packets
out-of-order packet delivery
The primary goal of IP is to provide the basic algorithm for transfer of data to and from a network. In order to achieve this, it implements two functions: addressing and fragmentation. It provides a connectionless delivery service for the upper-layer protocols. This means that IP does not set up a session (a virtual link) between the transmitting station and the receiving station prior to submitting the data to the receiving station. It encapsulates the data handed to it and delivers it on a best-effort basis. IP does not inform the sender or receiver of the status of the packet; it merely attempts to deliver the packet and will not make up for the faults encountered in this attempt. This means that if the data link fails or incurs a recoverable error, the IP layer will not inform anyone. It tried to deliver (addressed) a message until failed.
IP submits a properly formatted data packet to the destination station and does not expect a status response. Because IP is a connectionless protocol, IP may receive and deliver the data (data sent to the transport layer in the receiving station) in the wrong order from which it was sent, or it may duplicate the data. Again, it is up to the higher-layer protocols (layer 4 and above) to provide error recovery procedures. IP is part of the network delivery system. It accepts data and formats it for transmission to the data link layer. (Remember, the data link layer provides the access methods to transmit and receive data from the attached cable plant.) IP also retrieves data from the data link and presents it to the requesting upper layer (Naugle, 1999).
Compare and contrast IPv4 and IPv6. Justify your answer.
There are two version of the internet protocol are implemented in the network layer today, which is Internet Protocol version 4(IPv4) and Internet Protocol version 6(IPv6).
Today, most the internet are still implement the IPv4 but some of the internet are already move to IPv6, which is the newest version of the internet protocol. He also said that the Internet Protocol version 5(IPv5) is for experimental purpose, not for deployment purpose (White, 2009, p.348).
There are differences between the current of IPv4 and IPv6. The main difference between the IPv4 and IPv6 is the addressing of the IPv4 and IPv6 that provided. White (2009, p.348) elaborate that there have only 32-bit addresses that used by IPv4, which means only support until 32-bit of the IP address that provide by IPv4. Forouzan (2007, p.549) argues with White that the IPv4 is 32-bit address, which mean the IPv4 address are unique, means the address are only one and universally when the connection between the source and destination. Forouzan also stated that the two devices cannot have the same internet protocol (IP) addresses when the connections are established between the source and destination. For example, if the source or destination at the network layer has m connections to the Internet, it will require having m address.
In IPv6, there have 128-bits long address that provided by IPv6 compare to IPv4, which consist of 32-bits address, means that the IPv6 address consist 4 times to IPv4 address!
Another difference between the current of IPv4 and IPv6 is the notation of the address that shown by the IPv4 and IPv6. Currently, the IPv4 addresses are being show as 32 bits in binary notation, which is support 1 and 0 only. 1 is represent hostid and 0 is represent netid, and also computer only can understand the language which the human cannot understand. Each 8 bits are representing 1 octet, mean the 1 octet are consist of 1 byte. That why IPv4 are only support to 32-bit of address or 4-byte address. The following to show the example of the IPv4 address in binary notations:
01110101 10010101 00011101 00000010
In order to make the human can understand and read the binary notation, the internet are converted the binary-notation into decimal and separating the byte by using dot. The following to show the example of the IPv4 address in dotted-decimal notation:
Refer to the figure 1.0, it represent that both the binary notation and dotted-decimal notation of the IPv4 address. Because each octet are represent 8-bits, the range of each octet are 0 until 255(Forouzan, 2007, p.550).
Figure 1.0 Dotted-decimal notation and binary notation for an IPv4 address (Source: http://www.comptechdoc.org/os/linux/manual4/ipdecimal.html).
Similar to IPv6, the IP address in IPv6 also represent in binary notation. Only different is the IPv6 are using the hexadecimal colon notation to make the address understandable and readable. Refer to figure 1.1, 128-bit are being divided into 8 sections in the hexadecimal colon notation. Each section has 2 byte and each 2 byte is requiring 4 hexadecimal digits (Forouzan, 2007, p.567).
Figure 1.1 IPv6 address in binary and hexadecimal colon notation (Source: http://www.slideshare.net/WayneJonesJnr/ch19-3361671)
Another the different between the IPv4 and IPv6 is the IP datagram format that represent by the IPv4 and IPv6. In IPv4, there are 15 fields in the IPv4 packet header. Refer to the figure 1.3, it show that the number of the field, the format of the IPv4. The Version field contains the version of IP, which is version number of the IPv4 is number 4 and ensures the device send the packet through to the internet from source to destination implement the appropriate various field.
The Intermediate Header Length (IHL) specifies the size of the packet header, which the multiples of 32-bit words. If the options require in the datagram, it will require filling the padding bytes with unusual multiple of 32 bit.
The Type of Service (TOS) fields allow the process to determine the precedence, which is relative priority of the application data and preferred attributes associated the following path.
The Total Length (TL) or Packet Length (PL) field will display the whole packet size, including byte of header and data (Halsall, 2005, p.322).
The Flags field consist three control flags, which is reserved control flags, Don’t Fragment control flags and More Fragment control flags. Two control frags, which are Don’t Fragment control flags and More Fragment control flags, use to control the fragmentation (The TCP/IP Guide, 2005).
The Time-to-Live (TTL) field is to indicate the maximum the packet can be transmitted through the Internet. When the packet passes through the router, the TTL will decrement the number of transit of the packet remaining by one hop. When the TTL become 0, the packet will be discarded by the router.
The Protocol field is enables the Network layer to pass the data to the correct upper layer protocol.
The Header Checksum field is to identify the error at packet header. It also applied to protect from packet corruption during the transmission of the network.
The Source Address and Destination Address field is containing the address where the packets send or comes from (Halsall, 2005, p.324).
There are 5 fields in the options fields, which is copied fields, option class fields, option number, option length and option data. An option field is make all fragments of fragmented packets will save into the option if the option is being set by 1. Option class is define as a common option category, which 0 is represent control option and 2 is represent debugging and measurement option. The 1 and 3 is for reservation(Wikipedia,2010).
Figure 1.3 IPv4 datagram/packet format and header fields (TCP/IP Guide, 2005)
In IPv6, there are only 9 fields in the IPv6 packet header, means that the IPv6 field has been simplified compare to the IPv4, contains 15 fields, as shown in figure 1.4.
The Version field contains the version of IP, which is version number of the IPv6 is number 6 and ensures the device send the packet through to the internet from source to destination implement the appropriate various field (TCP/IP Guide, 2005).
The Traffic Class field is similar function as TOS in IPv4, which is allow the process to determine the different priority of the application data and preferred attributes associated the following path (Akashah, 2006).
The Flow Label field is provided the additional support datagram delivery and quality of service (QOS) features with creating a large field.
The Payload Length field is does not like the TL field from the IPv4, which is display whole size of packet but only display the payload byte number. The length of the extension header would be counted if the extension header will be included, means including the Hop-by-Hop Option, Routing, Fragment, Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP), Authentication Header (AH) and Destination Option.
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The Next Header field is to determine the first extension header of the next header in the datagram if the datagram contain the extension header. If the datagram contain only the main header and does not contain the extension headers, it will function as the IPv4 Protocol field. It also contain the same value, which the IPv6 version of the common protocol use though the new number.
The Hop Limit (HL) field is similar function as TTL from the IPv4 field, which is remaining life of packet travel through the internet before discarded by the router while become 0. The purpose of the HL is preventing the packet infinite loop at internetwork. Before the packet send to the destination, the sending host will set the HL value. When the packets pass through the router, the router will decrease the HL value by 1 and until become 0, the packet will be discarded.
The Source Address and Destination Address is similar function as the Source Address and Destination Address from the IPv4 field, which Source Address is contain the address where the packet are comes from. The Destination Address is contain the address that where the packet send to.
Figure 1.4 IPv6 datagram/packet format and header fields (TCP/IP Guide, 2005)
Introduction of the chosen game.
The three games that we choose is Peter Packet. Peter Packet is the education game represents the how the packets deliver through the internet. These games also represent how the packet can avoid from attacking virus and hackers. This game also can learn the lesson while the players play this game.
How to play the chosen game? You may print screen the layout to support your reports.
Here we have the instruction how to play the Peter Packet this game.
This is Peter Packet. He is responsible to deliver the life packet through the internet.
Figure 2.0 The screenshot is represent which difficulties you want to choose.
Before you want to play this game, first you want to choose the difficulties of the game as show in figure 2.0.
Figure 2.1 The screenshot is show which destination you want to choose
After we choose the difficulties, then we choose which destination we want to proceed as shown in figure 2.1.
This bar is show that the health status of the character.After we choose our destination we want, then we will show you the instruction how to play this game.
Click the skip button to skip this section.
The bar is show you that how many mission remaining you want to complete.
Click the character if you want learn more about it.
Press the back button if you want proceed to next section.
Press the back button if you want back to previous section.
Press the help button if you want to learn the tutorial again.
Press the mute button if you want to silent or you want the sound.
Figure 2.2 Speed up the character by using mouse right or press the right arrow
Figure 2.2 is show that if you want speed up the character you must press the right arrow or move the mouse to your right.
Figure 2.3 Slow down the character by pressing left arrow or move the mouse left
The figure 2.3 is show that if you want to slow down the character, you must press the left arrow or moves the mouse to left.
Get the encryption shields to protect from being caught
Figure 2.4 Get the encryption shields that protect from caught by Hackers.
Figure 2.4 shows that if you want get rid from the Hackers; you must to get the encryption shields to protect the character. Otherwise you will jump up by using up arrow or move up mouse to avoid being caught. Same as the virus, if you want to kill the virus, you must get the antivirus spray
Figure 2.5 double click or pressing the up arrow twice if you want the character adds a flip.
Figure 2.5 shows that if you jump not enough high, you can apply the flip for the character by pressing the arrow twice or double click.
What are the benefits of playing this game to each of your group’s member? Share your experiences and justifications.
Leong Yun Siong
The Benefit that I gain from playing this game is know how the internet play role important are, how the packet pass through the internet and the world started to emphasis the education, especially the women and the children from hardcore poor family and the personal hygiene. I also know how the router chooses the faster path of the network and also know how the electromagnet interference will interrupt the packet will cause the network congestion. I also know how the packet segmenting and reassembling.
Phang Won Meng
The Peter Packet is a funny game which contains a lot of useful information. By playing this game, we can understand there are many obstructers like hacker, Viruses and Route disruptions may occur when the packet are under the deliver. The game also provides and friendly user interface design with meaningful explanations and introduction to let player can learn more efficiency when playing the game. Inside the story of Peter Packet, Users can also find a lot of extra information like can learn information about social and environmental challenges in 3 countries that are Zimbabwe, Haiti and India in the developing world. Inside the story of Peter Packet, Users can also find a lot of extra information like that many people have died of AIDS and been exposed to HIV in Zimbabwe. Peter has the mission of helping to spread the word about this disease and get international aid. Players learn about the problems of lack access to clean drinking water in Haiti caused by years of environmental degradation from the harmful practice of intensive clear-cutting of trees, resulting in pollution and saltwater contamination. This useful information will help increase users knowledge and improve his moral.
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