EMPLOYEE RESOURCING PROCESS
Employee resourcing process is a part of human resourcing management which addresses one of the core areas of human resource practices: recruitment and selection. The greatest and most precious Assets of any organization is its employees and the most successful organizations comprise of a well formulated strategy and better management of human resources. The major role of human resource management is acquiring the employee services, developing their skills motivating them to high levels of performance And ensure that they continue to maintain their commitment to organizational objectives that leads to the implementation of organizational Strategy.
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Now considering the broad of context of global recession with increasing competition and scarcity, for Modern corporation for operating in its core firms the large scale employment is both a constraint and opportunity, where we can see the birth of strategic human resource management. In order to say employee resourcing process supports strategic human resource management, by considering the facts we can see that the strategic management of human resources is spread in successive layers of organization, which is addressing some fundamental environmental demands starting from hiring the right people for participation, motivating them to achieve organizational objectives.
EMPLOYEE RESOURCING PROCESS SUPPORTING STRATEGIC HRM
Resourcing is a process which helps management to establish and then change the behaviour of employees and increase their competencies too. Strategies of resourcing are basically two:
Recruitment is the process by which an applicant is attracted towards the company and where the organization sells itself as an attractive workplace.
Selection is the process in which a candidate is given a job from the pool of applicants, even assessing the applicant’s performance in accordance with the legislation and companies requirements.
Selection is different from requirement, where recruitment technically precedes selection. Recruitment involves identifying the sources of manpower and stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organizations. On the other hand selection is the process choosing best out of recruited. Recruitment aims at increasing the number of applications for increasing the selection ratios.
According to Gupta (2006), selection is a process of choosing the most suitable persons out of all the participants. In this process, relevant information about applicant is collected through series of steps so as to evaluate their competence for the job to be filled. Selection is the process of assessing the candidates by various means and making a choice followed by an offer of employment (Graham, 1998, p.206).
The selection process includes all activities related to internal movement of people across positions in departments and as well as hiring. The process should match the available human resources to jobs or positions in the organization.
The main strategic concern is Design, Careful attention should be given to Design a selection system that supports the organizational strategy. For example if a company plans to diversify or is going to change its strategy a careful analysis should be made of the types of people who will be needed to staff the new business or businesses and also parallel analysis should be made of general availability Of such person. Even though some Companies say that this type of planning will not yield a sufficient return on their investment of Time and energy, they say that they will go out and hire the appropriate people from the competition, if necessary, when they are needed.
Strategic fit is the key to the success of any recruitment and selection activity. Gathering of evidence and information does selection process from a variety of sources, most commonly by interviews, assessment centre’s, psychometric tests and references. Any selection method must be job related. Generally there are four stages of selection where these stages are again divided.
- Short-list from evidence supplied
- Selection process
- Assessment of evidence from all sources
- Validating selection
Short-listing can be a difficult process if supply far exceeds demand or if the criteria specified for the job are so general that they fail to act as self-selecting filter. In some organizations, short-listing can be fairly arbitrary but in others an objective assessment against the job description and person specification or competency requirements will take place.
It is unusual for one selection method to be used alone. A combination of two or more methods is generally used.
A. Application forms
Forms were considered to act as a useful preliminary to employment interviews and decisions. This made sorting of applications and short listing easier and enabled interviewers to use the form as the basis for the interview. Generally these are used as a straight forward way of giving a standard synopsis of applicant’s history.
B. Telephone interviewing
These can be used if speed is particularly important, and if geographical distance is an issue, as interviews with appropriate candidates can be arranged immediately. CIPD (2006) report that 56% of organizations use this method of selection. Positive aspect is content will be concentrated rather than person.
Various interviews include one-to-one, one-to-two, panel, sequential and behavioral interviews.( these interviews are not discussed in brief as they are discussed in detail in the below 2nd section)
The use of tests in employment procedures is surrounded by for and against feelings. Tests can be seen as giving credibility to selection decisions in strategic aspects.
Different types of tests include 1.Psychological tests, 2. General intelligence tests, 3. Special attitude tests, 4. Trainability tests, 5. Attainment tests. 6. Aptitude tests,
3. Assessments centre’s
Assessment centre’s is a multi method strategy for selection and may include interviews and psychometric tests. Assessment centers are developed from the recruitment criteria. For each dimension identified for a particular job role a variety of exercises or tasks are developed to test that dimension. Design of an assessment centre is crucial and needs to be specific to the vacancy being filled and to the organization.
4. Validation of selection procedures
The critical information that is important for determining validity is the selection criteria used, the selection process used, and evaluation of individual at the time of selection and current performance of individual. It is useful for validation process if a record is made of the scores that each achieved in each part of the selection process. Test results are easy to quantify and for interview results a simple grading can be used.
This includes medical checks and reference checks. Reference check helps to confirm (or deny) the information received from the employee resourcing process (factual check) and/or provide evidence of character or ability (character reference).
Factual reference gives an indication of the candidate’s previous experience, his /her suitability and development potential
Useful to provide the referee with a job description and ask his/her questions about the candidate’s previous job performance and relate this to the position on offer.
Structured telephone reference check is the most beneficial way to obtain the information as people are usually more forthcoming with verbal feedback than written information.
If the company does supply a reference it must be accurate.
Employee resourcing policy should state clearly whose reference will be used, when in the process they will taken up and what kind of references will be necessary (e.g. from former employers).
Objectives of Selection
The basic idea in a selection process is to solicit maximum possible information about the candidates to ascertain their suitability for employment. Various steps involved in a selection process.
Firstly, the selection process depends upon the type of personnel to be selected. For example, more info is required for the selection of managerial person when compared with subordinate workers.
Secondly, it depends on the sources of recruitment and the method that is adopted for making contact with prospective candidates. For example in case of advertisement, selection process is more comprehensive and time-consuming, where as in the case of campus recruitment the process is shortened
Thirdly, it also depends upon on the number of candidates that are available for selection. If the number is large enough, there is a need for creating various filtering points and reducing the number of applicants at each successive point.
There is no standard selection procedure to be used in all organizations or for all jobs. The complexity of selection procedures increases with the level and responsibility of the position to be filled.
Therefore, the strategy and the method used for selecting employees varies from firm to firm and form one job to another.
Legislation underpinning the selection process in strategically aspects
“Law is not an abstract thing, it’s a living organism
Since it’s applied on living human beings “
Impact of legislation on selection process
Right from the starting legislation has greatly influenced the selection process. Legislation is geared to remove discrimination from the process and ensure equal opportunity. Any selection process is designed to discriminate, but it is on the grounds of who has the best skills and abilities which fits the job and nothing else.
Lester says, “When people sell their services and spend their lives in the premises of the purchaser of the services, a varying amount of dissatisfaction, discontent, industrial unrest likely to occur Hence the need for employee legislations. The employee legislation, labour legislation, human resource legislation whatever name it may be called refers to one and same concepts that cover a number of legislations passed by the governments.
As the companies invest a lot through joint ventures or own source will definitely look towards concept of maximizing profit, which will lead to exploitation of Human resources and the executives Needs to be trained in the labour legislations, sociology, psychology, and psychiatry aspects.
Now we will discuss the Federal laws and state laws specifying required, acceptable and prohibited employment practices, place constraints on recruitment, selection, placement and training and other human resource activities.
Facts and resources say legislation and regulations enacted by governments have a direct impact on area of HRM policy and practice in which they are concerned. Moon (1991) noted there is an impact of legislation in areas such as equal opportunity, occupational health and safety and industrial relations in Australia. Moore and Devereaux Jennings stated, ”In Canada, to a considerable extent, legal regulations shape human resources policies and constrain HRM practices.”
Source: ( Bob Kane, Ian palmer.1995.International Journal of Man power: page no 11-19,viewed on December 3rd 2008 ,15:16)
From the above figure we can easily identify the potential influences of legislation on HRM.
LEGISLATIONS IN UNITED KINGDOM
If we take United Kingdom, the employment laws are concerned with deterring employers from discriminating. There are two major acts of parliament that govern sex discrimination matters in UK, they are the Equal Pay Act 1970 and the Sex Discrimination Act 1975. Sex discrimination is an area of law which has been one of EU competence so appeals can be made to the European court of justice.
Sex discrimination Act and Racial Relations Act
Under this terms of Sex discrimination act(SDA) and the Race relations act 1976 (RRA), it is unlawful to discriminate in employment-including recruitment, training and promotion-on the grounds of a person’s sex or martial status (SDA) or their race, colour ,nationality, ethinic and national orgin (RRA)
Three different types of discrimination is defined under this act
Genuine occupational orientation
Race relations amendment act 2000
Disability discrimination Act
Under the terms of this act (DDA) discrimination will arise if , for a reason which relates to the person’s disability, the employer treats that person less favourably than it treats or would treat others who are not disabled ,unless there is a substantial justifaction. Under this act a disabled person is defined as anyone with “physical or mental impairment which has substantial and long term adverse effect on his/her ability to carry out normal day to day activities. Employers are expected to make “reasonable adjustments” to accommodate people with disabilities.
Religious & cultural beliefs
Under this act no applicant should receive less favourable treatment on the grounds of his/her religion. This legislation out lawing discrimination on grounds of religion was introduced in UK in December 2003, Effectively it prohibits direct indirect discrimination, harassment and victimization on the grounds of religion or belief.
Employment Equality(age) regulations 2006 came into force on 1 october 2006, They prohibit unjustified direct and indirect age discrimination, and all harassment and victimization on grounds of age.
Equal pay act
The Equal pay act means that men and women in the same employment have the right to equality in the terms of their employment contract. This applies where the person is engaged on like work, the work is related as equivalent work and also considered to be of equal value.
Rehabilitation of offenders act
The rehabilitation of offenders Act concerns the employment with a criminal record. If a person has been convicted of an offense, provides they have not been re-convicted for a further offense during a specific period. The person( job applicant) is required to disclose it, if asked by an employer.
Data protection act
This act applies to personal data held in a structured way in a medium (paper, computer, microfiche, tape, etc). To comply with Act, information must be collected and used fairly ,stored safely and not disclosed to anyone unlawfully. There are eight data protection principles set out in the act.
Processed fairly and lawfully;
Obtained and processed for specified purposes
Adequate, relevant and not excessive
Accurate and update
Held for no longer than necessary
Processed in accordance with subject rights
Not transferable outside the European economic area –unless equivalent levels of protection for personal data exist.
Asylum and immigration act
Under the asylum and immigration act the employer could be guilty of a criminal offense if they employ someone who doesn’t have permission to work in UK . This act applies to all temporary, permanent and casual appointments.
The fixed –term employees regulations 2002
This regulation on fixed-term employees came into effect from 1 october 2002. The regulations are intended to protect employees engaged on fixed term contracts from being treated less favorably than comparable employees on indefinite contracts.
All the above regulations were made, not only for the employee but also for the employer so that the employment can be upholded. These regulations can affect the selection process so that no job applicant will receive less favorable treatment on the grounds of political belief, sex, sexual orientation, disability, marital status, race, nationality, ethnic origin, religion or social crisis.
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