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Factors in Health Services Management

Paper Type: Free Essay Subject: Health
Wordcount: 3556 words Published: 27th Mar 2018

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  • Joanne Tolentino
  • Rosarie Ann Nicole Trespeces
  • Karenne Melo
  • Daisy Kumari Shrestha


The ever changing health system poses challenges that require capacity and capability in attaining success. Managing a health care industry requires extensive knowledge, skills and positive attitude in order to run the organization effectively and efficiently. To have an in-depth understanding on operations management and organizational performance, in this paper equal rights in public health care, demographic data, epidemiological characteristics, public health, culture, sources of power, and political aspects of the organization will be discussed.

Demographic, Epidemiological and social environment

In the health care arena, the primary focus of the health professionals is to provide care for the sick and promote health and well-being to people. The constant challenge, however, is to give equal rights for them to have access to public health. Equal rights for people is almost the goal not of just a single organization, but of every nation for their locals. Thus, equality in the delivery of health services must be observed at all times that no one shall be deprived of access to public health, regardless of age, color, ethnicity, gender, or socioeconomic background.

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The surge of the influenza incidence in Auckland, New Zealand alarms Kiwi-Asian Persuasion Medical Center (KPMC) to take necessary actions. To prevent transmission or halt the health problem, KPMC not only prepares the skilled staff to provide but also reaches out to organizations to address the health problem. Although income or money plays a crucial part in determining the type of service a person affected with influenza or any health problem could afford, the (KPMC) aspires to provide holistic care with high consideration to health equality and Treaty of Waitangi. This means that the hospital practices free financial access to health services that each individual is entitled to receive holistic care.

The health budget is generated from the New Zealand government or fund from the ministry of health. To ensure that equality is addressed, the hospital will conduct research works on how to bridge or close gaps in health and social inequalities. Hence, health policies and laws shall be formulated. Other alliances, non-profit organizations, and national and international organizations related to health will be requested to provide support to attain KPMC’s aspiration in providing equality in health through financial free services to all.

According to Bonita and Kjellstrom (2006), epidemiology is that the study of the distribution and determinants of health related states or events in specified populations and the application of this study to the prevention and control of the health problems. The epidemiological data are employed to arrange and measure methods to prevent disease and as a guide to the management of the patients in whom illness has already developed.

For the epidemiologic study various demographic data such as population, gender, age group, ethnicity categories are required. The main features of epidemiology is the assessment of the disease outcome in a risk of the population. The risk of population is the group of people, healthy or sick, population from different ethnic group, different age group, and a different gender. Hence, statistical data for epidemiological study and the primary source of demographic data can take from the census is much needed. New Zealand is derived from the national census, which is carried out every five years. Census encompasses information about variables, including age, gender, ethnicity, birthplace, occupation, accommodation, education, socioeconomic status, divorce, employment, long term illness etc. The analytical techniques applied to epidemiological data consist of general statistical approaches as well as special techniques that have been developed to fit the needs of particular epidemiological study designs. While mathematical formula which may be used for statistical data, such as live birth, deaths, fetal deaths, marriages, migrates, health and disease etc, (Koch, 2015).

According to World Health Organization (2015), conditions in which individual bears, nurture, live and work that impact an extensive variety of health, operating and life quality results are the social determinants of health. These conditions are formed by the delivery of financial, authority and properties at national and global levels. Resources that improve quality of life can have an important inspiration on population health outcomes such as safe and reasonable housing, education access, safety in public, healthy food availability, local and health emergency and environments free of life- threatening. Breakthrough reports on movements to expand health and reduce inequalities has been created by the World Health Organization (WHO).

Social health inequalities that have impact on the spread of influenza in Auckland are health behaviors such as unhealthy diet and inactive lifestyle, social environment or social characteristic like low income, physical environment wherein where the individual lives and the living conditions and health services such as access to low quality health care or having no insurance coverage. These determinants of health also interact with and influence person behaviors too, and these also contributes in the development of social patterning of health, illness and disease. One and all has the right to achieve holistic health that is the reason why government and non- government organizations are combating and addressing those determinants of health.

Cultural and Political Environment

According to Root (2015), external environment of an organization is those factors which affect the outside of an organization’s ability to function smoothly. Among the five external general environment factors which affect the organization directly one of the most critical external factors is economic environment. According to Jorge (2014), this factor talks about the comprehensive of the nature of economic system of the country, business cycle, the socio economic infrastructure etc. Other external factors, including legal or ethical, political, technological and international factors that relate to the values, attitudes and concerns of the target people and their economic capabilities to afford the services. The political, ethical and legal environment related to the organizational laws and to meet the ethical or social responsibility standards to the communities Gupta (2009).

Organizational Culture

The Kiwi-Asian Persuasion Medical Center is a Christian, government-run institution committed to deliver high quality holistic care to the poor, sick and the dying. This institution strongly believe that every client, regardless of their ethnicity and culture, should feel comfortable, safe and secured just like home. Thus, Kiwi-Asian Persuasion Medical Center became known for its “feel-at-home” ambiance (Study, 2003).

The hospital is painted with soft, vibrant colors to promote calmness. For a more relaxing place, lazy boy chairs are provided for both the visitors and the clients. All employees must greet every client coming in and out of the hospital with a warm smile. Though they are in a hospital, patients should feel the comfort of their own home.

Also, the success of this organization is because of the core values that this institution upholds (Riley, 2014. Cultural diversity is one of the core values of the culture of this institution. The workforce want all clients to be treated like family despite cultural differences. Diversity should be respected and embrace within the workplace.

Another core value of this institution is team spirit, working hand in hand in providing care to the clients. Thus, creating a positive relationship with colleagues and clients. Accountability for the actions, decisions and policies made when providing care for the patient. It is also very important to practice balance. Every employee shall maintain a healthy work-life balance to avoid poor performance. Lastly, excellence in providing the best quality health care service shall be upheld at all times. This is by inspiring moments of optimism in giving care in order to create value and make a difference in the lives of every client that is admitted in this institution (Wendy, 2013). By aligning the significance of these values with the employees, Kiwi-Asian Persuasion Medical Center has successfully created a strong organizational culture.

Task external environment

The task environment is closer to the organization and includes the sectors that conduct day-to-day transactions with the organization and directly influence its basic operations and performance (Daft, 2012). External task environment includes competitors, competitors, suppliers, and labour market.

Customers are the people and organizations in the environment that acquire goods or services from the organizations. In the health care, patients are the customers of the hospital. The success of the organization largely depends on them since they are the recipient of care. The satisfaction of the patients mirror the performance of the employees and how the managers run the organization.

Competitors are the organization in the same industry. They present challenges as they vie for customers in a marketplace with similar products or services (Houghton Mifflin Harcourt., 2014). In the health care, competitors are public health organizations like hospitals that provide similar health services. According to Gupta (2009), it is important to know all the competitors, their organizational size and skills pool, their competitive advantages, their marketing strategies, off shore development. The main point here is to maintain standards by observing quality assurance and keep customers despite the existence of similar organizations.

Suppliers provide the raw materials the organizations produce its output (Daft, 2012). In health care, the needed resources are the hospital supplies and equipment used in the delivery of care. They affect the organization because of the dependency of the organization on the raw materials to provide adequate care. Thus, a good team up is necessary to receive high quality supplies at lower prices in order to save money while maintaining quality (Daft, 2012).

Labor market as stated by Johnson (n.d.) refers to the people a company hires to fill its position. Employees in the hospital should be more than competent and with certain characteristics in order to maintain quality services and uphold global competitiveness. Those who are involved in direct patient care should be highly qualified, skilled or trained otherwise poor health services will be afforded to patients. This in turn would cause harm and danger to both the organization and the population of people being cared for.

Sources of power

According to Raven (2015), leadership management and power are relatively connected. Individuals have the tendency to obey people who are powerful. Leaders have different power for different reason. Power is the capability to influence the behavior of other individual with or without enforcing force by means of diverse strategies to make a necessary action. It is an instrument that can end up to either optimistic or pessimistic results in an institution. Power is a fundamental and unpreventable part in any institution. No leaders can be effective and competent starved of understanding and use of suitable power. There are two (2) types of power, the position power and the personal power. Under position power, includes legitimate power, reward power and coercive power. On the other hand, expert power and referent power falls under personal power (French, 2012).

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Legitimate power is often called positional power. This power originates from the position, role and status of an individual in an institution. It typically consist of formal authority. Reward power emanates from the capacity of an individual to deliberate treasured material rewards or produce added positive incentives. Incentives take account of increase salary, role promotion and positive commendations and appraisal. Coercive power is the capacity to impact individual by means of threat and giving of sanctions and negative penalties which encompasses of direct reprimand or suppression of anticipated rewards.

Knowledge is a power. Expert power comes from an individual’s superior skills and knowledge in a certain area. Individuals who exert expert power is usually valued by the institution for their problem solving skills as they can accomplish critical responsibilities. Referent power comes from the capacity of a person to appeal individuals and form their reliability and fidelity. This power comes from appeal and charisma.

According to B. Meadows (2011), all sources of power can be used in combination and people often have access to more than one power for the benefit and advancement of the institutions. Leaders use diverse power tactics to force other individual into desired actions and movements.

For the KPMC, reward power will be highly employed as it tends to have an influence, impression and impact on the actions, behaviors and attitudes of the employees. Consequently, it will greatly motivate and inspire employees to be an effective and efficient part of the team and to work better as there will be a reward waiting. Rewards can be either tangible or intangible. Even simply openly or secretly admiring an employee for a task well done is deliberated as reward power and can be a valuable administration tool. By employing reward power in the institution, leaders can make an alteration from controlling and leading to modelling and impelling the growth and development of the employees by using reinforcing reward power. Opinions, ideas, decisions of leaders who exercise expert power are held in high regard by the employees; hence, greatly impact and affects their actions and behaviors.

Good and Bad Political Aspects

In all organizations, conflict and problems may arise due to competition or rival interests between groups and individuals (Mitchell, 2005). The tension brought about by diversity should be resolved through political means. However, politics has also its downside that can sometimes lead to the total destruction of the organization. Negative politics include the use of unethical tactics to regain power. One negative approach they use is backstabbing wherein a person pretends to be a friend but all the while talking about you in detrimental ways behind your back. An example of these is saying something bad about your friend to your other colleagues to destroy her reputation. Another approach is to embrace or demolish rivals in your organization who has suffered past hurts. It is when you fire people who do not favor the takeover. Next is stealing credit to people whom credit is due. Also, territorial games exist which involve competing for resources that gives power such as relationships, authority and information. Good mouthing an employee to make them transferrable is also an unethical tactic. It usually happens when an unwanted employee is suddenly given an outstanding performance which makes her more marketable and more prone for a transfer. Another negative approach is putting a weak manager in place to help secure your position. It usually happens when a manager hires an incompetent assistant manager who is more unlikely to get a promotion. Continuous use of these unethical tactics may undermine organizational goals.

However, by promoting good politics it channels away employees from using negative tactics. Some influential tactics use is leading by example. A manager must be a role model to her employees by being consistent with her words and actions. Next is using consultation to encourage employees for their ideas and opinions. Assertiveness as a positive tactic is also practiced. This refers to being straightforward with the person without violating their rights. Managers often use reasoning and logic as an influential tactic to get employees to follow their orders. Another is ingratiation wherein a person acts friendly when asking others for a favor. Lastly, exchange is also an approach for influencing employees by offering a barter with others. When these political tactics are used appropriately it can promote positive resolution to the tension rising in the organization (Mitchell, 2005).


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