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Macro and Micro Nutrients

Paper Type: Free Essay Subject: Health
Wordcount: 1496 words Published: 3rd Jul 2017

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Nutrition is basically the process absorbing, consuming and using nutrients needed for the growth of the body, maintenance and development of the life (Wikipedia, 2009). Nutrients are basically chemical substances in foods that strive to nourish the body.

Many nutrients in the body can be synthesized. Those nutrients that cannot be synthesized in the body are known as the essential nutrients that are a must to be consumed in the diet. These nutrients include amino acids which are found in proteins, minerals and proteins and certain fatty acids. From the 20 amino acid nutrients, nine of them are known as the essential nutrients. If the essential or necessary nutrients are not supplied in the quantities that are required, deficiencies disorders of nutrition can be the outcome (SHARMA, 2012). To determine as to whether the person is getting the right amount of nutrients a doctor usually examines and asks about the diet and the eating habits, performs a physical assessment to examine the composition (the amount of muscle and fat), and the body functioning. Finally the doctor orders the laboratory tests to measure the exact content of tissues and blood.

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In general the nutrients are divided into two classes, micro nutrients and macro nutrients. The macro nutrients including fats, carbohydrates, proteins and some minerals are usually required daily in large quantities. They usually make up the bulk of supply and diet, the energy and building blocks required for the growth, activity and maintenance. Micro nutrients on the other hand are required in small quantities usually in milligrams which are calculated to be 1000th of the gram, and one millionth of a gram in micro grams. They usually include trace minerals and vitamins that catalyze the exact utilization of the macronutrients. Other needy components of the food aren’t metabolized or digested to any kind of an appreciable extent. The components usually consist of fibers such as the pectin, cellulose and gums. The authorities recommend that twenty grams of fiber should be consumed every day to improve the movement and motion in the gastrointestinal tract, normalize the changes in cholesterol and blood sugar that usually occurs after meals, and maximize the elimination of the cancer causing substances that the bacteria in the large intestine usually produces. The food additives including emulsifiers, preservatives, stabilizers and antioxidants improve the production, processing packaging and storage of foods. The substances such as the flavors, spices, colors, odors, phytochemicals and many other natural products enhance the taste, appearance, taste and stability of foods. The food in the daily diet usually includes or can contain as much as 100000 substances, out of which around 300 are the nutrients, and around 45 are the nutrients that are essential.



The organic macro nutrients are usually the fats, carbohydrates and proteins, and they supply around 90% of the dry weight of the diet and energy of around 100%. They are usually digested into the intestine and then they are always broken down into their core or basic units; the glycerol and fatty acids from fat, sugars from the carbohydrates and the amino acids from the proteins. The energy content is usually 4 calories in one gram of carbohydrate or protein and 9 calories in a gram of fat. As the main sources of fats, carbohydrates, energy, and proteins are usually interchangeable in part or proportion to their content of energy.

The intake of energy varies a lot from around 1000 to 4000 calories every day depending on the sex, age and physical activity (SELFNUTRITIONDATA, 2012). Ideally the young children, sedentary women, and older adults need around 1600 calories every day. On the other hand older children, sedentary men and adult women need about 2000 calories every day. The young men and adolescent boys need around 2400 calories a day. Around 55% of the calories usually come from carbohydrates, 15% come from protein and around 30% come from fats. If the energy intake is less or insufficient for the body’s needs and requirements, then the act of weight loss comes into play, and the fat that is stored in the body and the protein to a lesser extent is used to supply the energy that is needed for everyday survival. Total starvation can usually cause death in the period of around 8 weeks to 12 weeks.

The necessary fatty acids contribute to around 7% of the fat that is consumed in the normal diet, which is thought of to be around 8 grams or 3% of the total calories, and therefore are considered to be macronutrients. They usually include linolenic acid, linoleic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, arachdidonic acid and docosahexaenpoic acid. The linolenic and the linoleic acid are usually found in the vegetable oils, docosahexaeoic and eicosapentaenoic acid is necessary for the development of the brain and is usually found in the fish oils. In the body the arachidonic and docosahexeonic acid can be created from the linotenic acid despite the fact the fish oil is a more efficient source.

Usually the macro minerals are the phosphorus, calcium, sodium, chloride, magnesium and potassium. These macro minerals are considered to be macro nutrients because they are required in large amount of quantities which can be around 1 to 2 grams a day. water which is also a macro nutrient is usually required in the quantities of around 1 millilitre for each calorie of energy or in the range of 2500 milliliters a day.

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Vitamins and trace minerals are usually known as the micro nutrients. The vitamins are usually classified as water soluble, and this includes eight members of the vitamin B complex and the vitamin C, or fat soluble which includes the vitamins D, A, E and K (SHARMA, 2012). the essential trace minerals usually include the zinc, iron, copper, manganese, molybdenum, iodide, selenium, and fluoride. All of the minerals usually activate the enzymes needed in the metabolism except for the fluoride. Fluoride usually creates a stable compound with calcium, aiding in stabilizing the mineral content of teeth and bones and helping in preventing the tooth decay. Trace minerals including chromium, arsenic, cobalt, silicon, nickel and vanadium which might be essential in animal nutrition have not been usually established as the fundamentals in human nutrition. All the trace minerals are said to be toxic at the upper or higher levels and some minerals such as the nickel, arsenic and chromium have been pointed out as the causes of cancer.

Healthy diet and dietary tools

A healthy diet plan is essential in order for one to lead a healthy life. Thus the correct food choices are essential (Hill)

  • Meals or foods with starch because these foods can provide you with a lot of energy
  • Eat a lot of vegetables and fruits every day. Preferred is to eat 5 varieties of fruits and vegetables every day.
  • Eating more fish can be very beneficial. It is preferred to eat two potions of fish every week.
  • Reduce the usage of salt in your everyday. It is preferred to eat no more than 6 gram of salt per day.
  • Minimize the usage of saturated fat and sugar.
  • Exercise daily and keep your weight healthy. Healthy weight is essential for health.
  • Drink a lot of water since it has no side effect. Preferred intake of daily water is 6-8 glasses.
  • Breakfast is essential and should not be skipped because it gives you all the required energy you need for the day. Bread, eggs, butter and milk can be a good source of breakfast.

If above dietary plan is properly followed it will lead to a person having a healthy life and free from any kinds of diseases, physical problems and stress.


Overall nutrients are an essential part of the life of a human being that are required in each and every stage of the life. It is basically the process of absorbing, consuming and using nutrients needed for the growth of the body, maintenance and development of the life. Nutrients are basically che

mical substances in foods that strive to nourish the body. Therefore they need to be taken in essential quantities so as to nourish the body of the human beings. Both the macro nutrients and micro nutrients are an essential part of this nutrient process. The macro nutrients normally include the fats, carbohydrates and protein, whereas the macro nutrients usually include the vitamins and trace minerals. What the person or a human being needs to know is that what is the right quantity for him or her to consume and as to what combination of the fats, proteins, carbohydrates and vitamins are essential for them. When the persons are well aware of these things then they are able to eat a healthy diet and usually stay healthy all their life.


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