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The Key Principles Of Communication In Groups English Language Essay

Paper Type: Free Essay Subject: English Language
Wordcount: 2711 words Published: 1st Jan 2015

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Communication is about people or groups of people relating to one another. It is the way individuals or organization bridge the gap between each other in order to share a common meaning or obtain an equal perception or view on ideas, goals, visions e.t.c it is also a network between individuals or groups in an organization in which particular parties intend to share their perceptions/views of information with other parties.

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In his book “Managerial Communication” Professor Waswa Balunywa defines communication as ‘the process by which people attempt to share a meaning via the transmission of symbolic message’ he gives another definition of communication as ‘transfer of information from the sender to the receiver with the information being understood by both the sender and receiver’ these definitions state clearly that the purpose of communication is to be understood by our employers, peers or audience. In order to be understood we have to communicate effectively.

Effective communication is the way individuals or network transfers their information to and fro in a way that the meaning is understood by the parties and the desired outcome is achieved. For example a speech or article against corruption will be effectively communicated if leads to a hard stance on communication.

In order to put one’s message across to the audience there are principles that are used in effective communication. Principles are rules, guidelines that are used in either verbal or non verbal communication. These guidelines are universal and include the following;


Completeness is when the message sent answers all questions raised or provides all the necessary information required in getting the necessary response. It involves the message having all the parts required without any lacking. This is because a complete message will bring about the desired results. For example message giving directions to a place for example restaurant or bookshop will result in punctuality, proper dress code, and preparedness among others.

Secondly completeness creates trust between the sender and the receiver or the speaker and the audience. This is because completeness sows seeds of goodwill and honesty between the parties. A good example is when one is applying for a loan from a money lender or finance institution, full information is required like reason for borrowing, name and address credit information(past and present), interest rates among others.

A message is complete when it address the 5 w’s (what, where, who, when, why, and how) by going through these questions it will ensure necessary and relevant information is provided.


Conciseness in communication is giving much information in few words. Being concise is very important because wordy messages are time consuming for both the sender and the receiver. Everything that is intended to be communicated should be straight to the point in order to eliminate doubt and obscurity in the message. For example when writing an essay the main point should be in the first lines of the paragraph.

Being concise and precise is advantageous in many ways. Firstly it keeps the interest of the audience or receiver. Lengthy messages will eventually lead to boredom, disinterest, undoubtly the sender will go off topic. Secondly in ensures that the communicator is headed in the right direction which should be in line with the audience’s expectations. Thirdly it gives the receiver a bird eye view of what is to be covered and eases understanding.

However conciseness should not be at the expense of completeness, clarity and courtesy. Short phrases or sentences may not necessarily be brief and complete. For example ‘we meet’ ‘okay please’ ‘come again’. In order to be brief it’s important:

Include any relevant facts

Avoid wordy sentences. It is important to note that by using big words may not be efficient in attaining conciseness. For example archaic instead of old, purloined instead of steal. This may also be the case for metaphors and idioms depending on the audience like ‘whole nine yards’ ‘chip off the old block’ such phrases or words add more questions than answers for some people.

Avoiding unnecessary repetitions

Avoid standardized expressions. These may be legal phrases, literature phrases or medical terms. These phrases should be restricted to a professional group or receivers in relevant fields.


Consideration is empathy having the receiver in mind as one communicates. It involves keeping the receivers emotions or ideas in mind as the message is being communicated. Consideration is important because;

Enables the receiver to understand the message.

It ensure the required or expected response is achieved

It builds trust or good will between the parties involved. It also enables one to relate to others. Looking at the other party’s point of view a message should not offend a receiver neither should it hurt the receiver’s feelings.

Consideration eliminates arrogance, ignorance and stereotyped ideas that may crop up in the message.

In an organization consideration will bolster teamwork since everyone’s’ ideas are taken seriously and not ignored. Furthermore it will improve working conditions and eliminate sense of dictatorship that may be felt by employees. These will make the decision making process run more smoothly.

Consideration may include looking at issues like gender language, religion, culture. In order to achieve this, the following are essential;

Put emphasis on positive facts for example writing recommendations, termination of contract among others.

Messages should show the receivers’ interest

Focus on the receiver and not on yourself.


Courtesy involves being polite and observing good moral behavior. Courtesy is similar to consideration but they are not the same. Consideration is keeping the receivers’ emotions in mind while courtesy is elimination of arrogance courtesy shows respect to the receiver even though the receiver may be a subordinate. It leads to trust and goodwill which will result in the intended results. To be courteous in communication the following guidelines should be used;

Avoid words that will deliberately hurt or belittle or irritate a person.

Apologize when you feel in the wrong.

Always appreciate and be thankful to the person your communicating with.

Be tactful when for instance delivering bad news.


Concreteness refers to being more specific, definite, and vivid rather than and general and repetitive. The main benefit of being concrete is obvious that the receiver knows exactly what is required or desired. The other benefit of being concrete is that the reply might be in the same way that may be interpreted by you as the receiver. Vague communication is very costly because it has to be clarified or may lead to expensive even fatal mistakes. Furthermore, there are many words which have relative and different meanings depending on situations. Such words should be avoided since they may cause confusion and misunderstandings. It is better far better if concrete information is used. Concreteness can be achieved through;

a. using specific facts and figures

Whenever possible use specific, exact, precise statement or figure instead of general words which helps in making your message more concrete.


General, Indefinite: She’s a brain; Concrete, Precise: Her percentage have increased from 84% in S.S.C to 88% in H.S.C

General, Indefinite: Eastern Europe is making progress in obtaining investments; Concrete, Precise: In 1990, investments in Eastern Europe were about US $30 million; today that figure has increased by 12%.

But sometimes when you don’t know the exact figures and want to be concrete you can write as “half the committee was present”

b. Put Action in your verbs

Verbs can bring your concreteness back to being alive and more dynamic. Use of verbs especially the active verbs makes your sentence more Specific, Personal and Concise. Even the passive verbs are more useful sometimes when you want to avoid any personal or accusing comments.


“The Principal Has decided” is more specific then “A decision has been made”.

“You will note” is both personal and specific than “It will be noted”.

c. Selection of more vivid and image-building words

This section refers to the use of language or words which are capable of creating an atmosphere in the mind of the reader that he imagines himself, being, in that situation rather than using words which would bounce over the gray matter. The inclusion of vivid words also helps in creating a scenario that the writer or speaker has a wider scope of imagination instead having an image of sticking to the basics.


Clarity is when a message sent from a sender to a receiver is properly understood so that the required intention is achieved. To clarify according to the oxford dictionary is ‘to make or become clear or easier to understand’

William. Harvey (6th edition) says the leader of an organization faces several unique communication problems in their day to day work activities. Because they have positional authority, their employees may not be capable of receiving what is being communicated with clarity. A typical employee, instead of carefully listening and understanding what is being communicated by their boss, may be thinking any of the following:

— What did he REALLY mean?

— Why is he talking to me personally, instead of someone else?

— I wonder what his REAL motivation is.

— I can’t believe she said something that stupid, but I won’t dare tell her that!

— I disagree, her facts are wrong, but I’m afraid to bring it up

— Why can’t he/she just be honest and tell me what’s on their mind?

It is the responsibility of the leader to make sure that the communication channels within a group

Are clearly defined, and that ideas are being interchanged in a free and open manner. The Leader shows, by example, how to communicate their message. They take responsibility for ensuring that their communication travels across the intervening distance that their message is received by the other person, and most importantly, that their exact message has been received and duplicated. The quality of the message is important: it must be simple, direct, and purposeful. Rather than combining two or three major thoughts into a sentence, the leader focuses on one major thought at a time. He avoids meandering around in conversation or in writing. He knows that vagueness and obtuseness have no place in business. The effective leader uses simple yet effective words to clearly communicate to everyone in the organization.

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Today’s business world contains a huge and diverse variety of ages, education levels, nationalities, and occupations. Make sure your communication reaches them with a message they understand! Almost all of the conflicts and disagreements which occur in the world today are caused directly or indirectly from misunderstandings. These misunderstandings typically are caused by poor communication, incomplete communication, and confusion about words and their exact meaning. The English language is a fertile ground for confusion among terms. Guess how many definitions there exist for a simple word, such as “be”? The skilled leader works tirelessly to build quality of communication among all of his employees.

This includes all forms of communication: verbal, written, email, voicemail, text messaging, instant messaging, recordings, and any other messages carried over the telephone or in person. The leader is fully aware that whenever communication problems exist, the business will suffer.

C.S Deverell (revised edition 19) suggests several techniques which the skilled leader can employ to improve the clarity and precision of his communication. Here a few of the most common:

1. Develop greater empathy. Be able to take off your “executive hat” and wear the “sales manager hat” or the “administrative assistant” hat. See how things look from their viewpoint for a change!

2. Listen more effectively. Don’t just hear what is being said, but listen and REMEMBER the important details like names, dates, ideas, deadlines.

3. When listening, check your understanding by asking yourself the six helpers: who, what, when, where, why, and how.

4. Repeat/rephrase. Ask them to repeat what they said so you can ensure you duplicated it precisely, or you can repeat it and make sure they agree it’s correct. This will ensure that you are both 100% in agreement. (Works verbally and in writing)

5. Confirm your understanding. Especially if there are action items, make sure everyone is very clear about who does what, when, where, how and why. Document where necessary.

6. Observe the obvious. If you look carefully, you will be able to tell if someone else just doesn’t get it. There are generally visible signs (facial expressions, body language) that will tell You there are problems with the reception. Be alert!

7. Talk less than you listen. Remember the value of silence. It’s amazing what you learn about others when you let them talk and you observe


At the core of the correctness is the proper use of grammar, punctuations and spelling. A message may be perfect grammatically and mechanically but still insult or lose a customer.

Correctness comprises of the following points:

Using the right level of language;

There are different levels of languages which may be formal, informal, and substandard. Formal writings are usually associated with the scholarly writing, legal documents, and other documents


Formal and Informal Approach

More Formal: Participate. Less Formal: Join

More Formal: Interrogate. Less Formal: Question

More Acceptable and Substandard

Substandard: Can’t hardly, More Acceptable: Can hardly

Substandard: Irregardless, More Acceptable: regardless

Checking accuracy of figures and facts.

Many a times it is impossible to convey the message directly from the sender’s head to the receivers head. So this can be done to an extent by including figures and facts like as follows:

Verifying your statistical data

Double-checking your totals

Avoid guessing of laws that have an impact on sender or receiver

Determine whether a fact has changed over a time.

Another factor is the inclusion of words that don’t confuse for example the following will help in clearing this topic.

Example 1: Accept-Except: Here accept means to receive and except means to omit.

Example 2: Biannually-Biennially: Biannually means 2 times a year and biennially mean every 2years.

C. Maintaining acceptable writing mechanics.

This topic relates to the proper use of words and spellings. But in today’s world writing have been easier, since, spell-checkers and various kinds of word formatting are available.


Communication is effective only when the desired meaning is understood by both the sender and receiver. It is important to put these principles into action so that communication becomes an asset instead of a liability. By going through all the principles of completeness, clarity, correctness, conciseness, concreteness, courtesy, and consideration, the message will be received in the desired manner and the expected outcome achieved.


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