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2012 London Olympic Games Construction Essay

Paper Type: Free Essay Subject: Construction
Wordcount: 3656 words Published: 1st Jan 2015

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My report is based on the 2012 Olympic Games project in London, the selected contractor submitted detailed documentation and project details which were evaluated & reviewed by the clients. All the documents deal with all type of administrative procedure, procurement strategy among others.

The report also explained all items involved in the construction industry coming from the project history, the pre-construction and post-construction stage. This report will benefit the client as to the successful completion of the project due to organize administrative procedure of procurement strategy.

1.2 Project Brief or History

The London 2012 Olympic Games, the Project Brief was a high level document that outlined the objectives and operational requirements for each project. As the project progressed through the different Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA) stages of the design process, the brief was developed to form

Initial Brief

Design brief

Project Brief

The initial brief was used to set out the initial ODA requirements of the project and informed the development of the design through RIBA design stages A/B. It captured the data from the Project Initial Document and the London Organizing Committee of the Olympic Games and Paralympic Games (LOCOG) Venue Requirements and described what the Design team was required.

The design brief defined what will be the next phase of the project that should be delivered and informed the RIBA Stages C/D. It focused on the technical requirements and the measurable criteria defined during Design development.

The Project Brief

The London 2012 Olympic Games projects are including 1 to 10 Milestone base as below

Milestone -01, Construction of the Olympic Stadium

Milestone -02, Construction of the Aquatics Centre

Milestone -03, Construction of the Velodrome

Milestone -04, Construction of the International Broadcast Centre/Main Press Centre(IBC/MPC)

Milestone -05, Construction of the Handball and Basketball Arenas

Milestone -06, Construction of the Lee Valley White Water Centre

Milestone -07, Construction work on Eton Manor and the Royal Artillery Barracks

Milestone -08, The External Structure of the Olympic Village

Milestone -09, Construction of all Permanent Bridges

Milestone -10, Construction work at Stratford Station

Including the project photo Appendix -B

Under the Project Brief, the following are included:

Project Name- 2012 London Olympic games

Project Value- £9,298m-the Public Sector Funding Package

Contract Period – Construction took four years from 2007 to 2011.

Project Procurement Method- design and build

Awarded Main Contractor Name-

Sir Robert McAlpine

Barr Construction



Balfour Beatty

Consultant Name :



Wilkinson Eyre Architects & KSS Design Group

Hopkins Architects, Grant Associates

Zaha Hadid Architects

Structural and services engineers, Planning

Buro Happold

Expedition Engineering

Hyland Edgar Driver

Ove Arup & Partners, BDSP


Savilles Hepher Dixon

Project client – IOC, LOCOG, ODA, Lee Valley Regional Park Authority,

02. Chapter

2.1. Identified Various People / Organisations

London 2012 Olympic Games Organization’s involved in key Project Stakeholders

Olympic Delivery Authority : (OAD)

The London Organizing Committee of the Olympics Games: (LOCOG)

The Greater London Authority (GLA)

British Olympic Association (BOA)

The Government (MPA, 2006).

And also in additional

The Mayor of London

Olympic Park Legacy Company

London Development Agency (LDA)

British Paralympic Association (BPA)

The Olympic Board (OB)

International Olympic Committee (IOC)

International Paralympic Committee (IPC).

Their main functions are to collectively advice and provide assurance to the board (MPA, 2006). These stakeholders have different perceptions as to what constitute success. While they all have different responsibilities towards the success of the game, their individual objectives has to be met. It is worth noting that their varying objectives were well reconciled as per the game. Shared understanding was created among them and reconciliation of objectives was easy because one of the predominant overarching aims of both the UK government and IOC for the games is sustainability among the Consultant, the main Contractor, the Sub-Contractor and the Supplier.

The more details including the Appendix-A

2.2. Financing Structure/Final Cost

The financing structures are two distinct aspects of the London 2012 Olympic Games, the preparation for the games by the ODA and LOCOG operational budget running the games.

The Secretary of state for culture, media and sport announced, in an oral Statement to the house, that the budget for the preparation of the 2012 London Olympics had increased from an initial estimate budget of £ 2.375 billion, at the time of the bid the estimated cost of the Games was £4 billion: £3 billion for the Olympic Park and an element for elite and community sport; and £1 billion as part of the wider Lower Lea Valley regeneration (excluding tax and wider security costs).

Following a review by the Government a revised funding cost was announced in March 2007 of £9.325billion, as details below Table-01.

The Budget as Announced for the Games on 15 March 2007



Amount Million (£)


Core Olympic Costs -Olympic Delivery Authority(ODA)






Infrastructure and regeneration costs associated with the Olympic park and other venues






Contingency (Excluding Tax)






Total ( Net of Tax )(1+2+3)






Other (Non ODA),Olympic Cost






Other Provisions



Policing and Wider Security



Tax (on ODA Costs)



General programme Contingency (including tax)



Total Provisions



Grand Total (4+5+6)



Overall Revised Budget


Table -01

The 2012 Olympic Games over-all budget (9.325 Billion (£) were distributed to all stockholders and summarized as follows on Table-02.

Public Funding Available



Amount Billion (£)








National Lottery






Greater London Authority






London Development Agency






Total Cost(1+2+3+4)


Table -02

However, on 24 March 2010, the Awarded budget was reduced to £ 27m and breakdown as follows Table 03:



Amount Million (£)





Olympic Delivery Authority(ODA)



ODA Base Cost Including VAT



Programme Contingency



Funders Contingency



Total Available to ODA






Non-Olympic Delivery Authority(ODA)



Elite and Community Sports



Paralympic Games



Look of London






Security Contingency



Total Non ODA






Total Public Sector Funding Package (1+2)






Overall Original Budget


Table -03

The 2012 Olympic Games over-all Revised budget (9.298 Billion (£) were distributed to all stockholders and summarized as follows on Table-04.

Sources of Funding



Amount Billion (£)


National Lottery






London (GLA and LDA)






Central Government



Total Cost(1+2+3)


Table -04

Unveiling the government’s final quarterly budget update, the sports minister, Hugh Robertson, said that at a “conservative estimate” the final cost of the Games would be £8.921billion against an overall original budget of £9.298billion

2.3. Project Procurement Structure/Methodology

The specific new construction of Olympic stadium, the project leadership has been established, and then the procurement method will be accepted. The project was procured on a design and build basis.

A method where the contractor is responsible for undertaking both the design and the construction of the work in return for a lump sum price.

There are variants on this option depending on the degree to which initial design is included in the client’s requirements. Appointment of a contractor is often by two stages tendering, thus keeping a competitive element, but not expecting every tenderer to produce full proposals. The client’s requirements can range from a simple accommodation schedule to a fully worked out scheme design, but generally should be matched by the contractor’s proposal

For design and build procurement there are three main types of contract:

Package Deal or Turnkey Contract

Design and Build Contracts – Contractors Design Obligations

Contractor’s Design for Specific Elements Only

The project procurement plan includes the following:

Sourcing materials with low embodied carbon

Minimizing waste at source, promoting use of secondary materials

Policies on eco

Ecologically sensitive materials: e.g Timber and Food

Ethical procurement and fair employment

Sourcing healthy materials and ensuring health and safety on site (ODA, 2009:1)

The procurement plan is being implemented by a rigorous procurement process. All partners and collaborators will have to meet individual and overall criteria in order to contribute to the successful outcome of the plan. This will have to be made visible through product and service supply, engagement in relevant projects, promotion of behavioral change, consumers, employees and supply chains (ODA, 2009).

2.4. Main Forms of Construction Contract/Tender Document

The New Engineering Contract (NEC) was used to facilitate all the necessary documents during the bidding and awarding stage. Both parties, the Client and the Contractor, agreed and closed the project based on the NEC contract.

The NEC3 suite of contracts was selected because it provided the following key attributes in response to ODA, s Requirements.

A flexible approach, providing a range of contract solutions relative to the level of design information available and procurement option being considered.

The pro-active management of risk as an inherent and fundamental element of the entire contract forms.

A collaborative approach supporting timely delivery, which is fundamental to ODA.

Full visibility of cost (Except under option a contracts), supporting effective programme budget management.

ODA has number of obligations under the London Olympic Games Act 2006, particularly around risk, brand protection and stakeholder rights, which necessitated changes to the standard NEC3 Contract Forms. These changes included,

Additional collateral warranties for key interested parties

Restrictions in change of ownership of tier 1 contractors

Enhanced conflict of interest provisions


NEC3 Contract and Option








Engineering and Construction Contract Option- C (Target contract with activity schedule)

Major and complex venues and infrastructure

Target price was best fit to developing specification






Engineering and Construction Contract Option- A ( Priced contract with activity schedule)

Other venues

Designs were firm allowing cost certainty






Term Service Contrcat Option -A ( Priced contract with activity schedule)

Logistics and security contracts

Pricing schedules accommodated required flexibility in both volume of services required and scale ( through enhanced services schedules)

The New Engineering Contract 2005 version 3 Engineering and Construction Contract recommends that the various methods of ‘specifying’ the works should be adopted

Option A & C Activity Schedule

Option B & D Bill of Quantities

Option E & F A traditional ‘Specifications’ or drawing

The Olympic Delivery Authority used procurement through e-procurement system and methodology, particularly an evaluation system to enable delivery of its policy objectives and ambitions as follows:

Sustainability and Legacy

Design and Accessibility

Equality and Inclusion

Employment and Skills

Health, Safety and Security

Delivery of London Olympic Stadium in Time, Cost and Quality

Tender documentations are:

Activity schedule

Method statement

Working drawing


Quantified Specification

Work Schedules ( the word ‘Item’ denotes pricing)

Specification + Contract Sum Analysis or Schedule of Rates

03. Chapter

3.1. Construction Technology Challenges

The London 2012 Olympic Games project was constructed with many construction challenges and new construction technologies. Some of which are as follows :

Low-carbon concrete with 40 percent less embodied carbon was used for concreting structures.

Surplus gas pipes were used to build the top ring of the Stadium.

Recycled containers were used as toilet facilities.

Demolished existing structures were placed on top of the ground that served as a solid base for the construction.

To reduce the loads on the project, 75 percent lightweight steel materials were utilized in the construction.

As part of the landscaping works. 500,000 plants were planted in the Olympic Park’s wetland areas

Due to new technologies that were adopted, only 10,000 tons of steel were used.

Tensile roofing’s were used as to cover the ground bowl-like stadium.

The project settled at 2,821 feet perimeter land and stands at 197 feet high.

The Delivery Partner was comprised of three construction industry leaders, who were responsible for the construction of all new venues and infrastructure needed for the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. The Olympic Park will house nine state-of-the-art venues including the Olympic stadium, velodrome and aquatics center. New Technology was used to fast track the project and attained the completion date of the Project.

As the time is the essence, the constructions were done on a 24 hour basis as the design required new methodology to meet the criteria of the Project Specifications

Methodological challenges that are anticipated include:

Achieving adequate coverage of project-level evaluations, within the bounds of practicality, across legacy and sub-legacy themes, geography, demographics, project size/type etc;

The complexity of the task and the interdependencies that exist between outcomes and impacts of different projects and programmes;

The aggregation and synthesis of different measures and indicators, which may also be of varying quality;

Assessing the impact and additionality of interventions in a consistent fashion;

Ensuring value for money and benefits are being measured or estimated using credible evidence;

Measuring intangible impacts using experimental measures such as subjective well-being and through custom techniques such as media content analysis;

Measuring wider strategic impacts and added value generated through coordination of the organisations involved in planning and delivering legacy

3.2. Health and Safety Records/Achievement

The HSE has published the first in a series of research reports on the London 2012 Olympics as part of a concerted effort to circulate the health and safety lessons learned from the Stratford project among the wider construction industry.

There are so many magnificent aspects of London 2012 when it comes to Safety issues and this was achieved through the excellent safety record, especially during the construction phase.

The park was built with zero construction fatalities. It shows the approaches to gain a good occupational Safety and Health. Some of the achievements are as follows:

The Royal Society for the Prevention of Accidents (RoSPA) honored the Olympic Delivery Authority in a ceremony.

More than 12,500 workers helped construct the venues and the ‘Big Build’ of the site was hailed as the safest construction of an Olympic Stadium.

The Executive started working with the Olympic Delivery Authority (ODA) soon after London was awarded the 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games and set out clear targets of what standards were expected, encouraging strong leadership and sharing of good practice. Up to this month, the HSE has received reports of only 114 injuries and eight dangerous occurrences that occurred during the project’s 66 million hours of work.

And also the ODA’s commitment to health and safety has been recognised by the British Safety Council (BSC) with its 5-star award, following an independent, rigorous audit of the ODA’s health and safety management system and processes, in which the ODA received a score of 98 per cent.

The ODA was also awarded the Sword of Honour, one of the most prestigious international health and safety accolades that an organization can receive, which is designed to encourage and reward organizations that work to best practice. All applicants must have already received 5 stars from the BSC

04. Chapter

4.1. Conclusion

Based on the above submission, it can be concluded that the Construction of the facilities needed for the 2012 London Olympic Games were successfully done and completed to the satisfaction of the Client. This achievement was due to the following:

Thorough evaluation of the Project Requirements as reviewed and evaluated by the Client.

An organized procurement strategy within the UK and International market environments.

Teamwork and coordination among the stakeholders

Utilizing the familiar form of contract in UK

Proper implementation of all construction methodology accepted in the construction industry.

Proper planning and implementation to meet the required completion date.

Utilizing new construction technologies and materials.

Likewise, a complete record for health and safety were properly organized. A strict implementation of a Safety Plan were followed resulting to no fatalities or major injuries recorded.

With respect to the financial aspect of the project, variation orders and cost were not clearly indicated as this will have a big impact on the total and final cost of the project involved.

Nevertheless, the over-all aspect of the report can be recommended as it clearly shows that all necessary strategies and construction methodology will have a successful outcome as expected by the client specifically the completion of the project as per the time schedule, work quality and project cost.

05. Chapter

5.1. Bibliography

Olayide Mutiu Adedeji, Senior Quantity Surveyor, February 20,2013

Company : CEG International

Contact : Tel- +974-44551188

Fax +974-44551144

E-Mail: jyde66@yahoo.com

Web: www.ceg-qatar.com

Post: P.O. Box -3973, Doha Qatar

Mohamed Azhar, Senior Quantity Surveyor, February 22,2013

Company : CEG International

Contact : Tel +974-44551188

Fax +974-44551144

E-Mail: azhar@yahoo.com

Web: www.ceg-qatar.com

Post: P.O. Box -3973, Doha Qatar

Elajun E. Custodio, Civil Engineer, March 20,2013

Company : CEG International

Contact : Tel- +974-44551188

Fax +974-44551144

E-Mail: ee_custodio@yahoo.com.ph

Web: www.ceg-qatar.com

Post: P.O. Box -3973, Doha Qatar

Mahmud Anees Senior Quantity Surveyor, March 15,2013

Company : KESO

Contact : E-Mail: anees @yahoo.com

Web: www.ceg-qatar.com

Post: P.O. Box -3973, Doha Qatar


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