The first scientific calculator that included all of the basic features above was the programmable Hewlett-Packed HP-9100A released in 1968, though the Wang LOCI-2 and the Mechatronics Mathatron had some features later identified with scientific calculator designs. The HP-9100 series was built entirely from discrete transistor logic with no integrated circuits, and was one of the first uses of the CORDIC algorithm for trigonometric computation in a personal computing device, as well as the first calculator based on reverse Polish notation entry. HP became closely identified with RPN calculators from then on, and even today some of their high-end calculators (particularly the long-lived HP-12C financial calculator and the HP-48 series of graphing calculators) still offer RPN as their default input mode due to having garnered a very large following.
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The HP-35 introduced on February 1, 1972, was Hewlett-Packard’s first pocket calculator and the world’s first handheld scientific calculator. Like some of HP’s desktop calculators it used reverse Polish notation Introduced at US$395, the HP-35 was available from 1972 to 1975. HP continues to develop and market high-end scientific calculators, like the HP-35s and HP-49 series, which have been favored by scientists and engineers, in labs, offices, as well as in the field.
The calculator was written by Rolf Hawarth in early 1996.
A scientific calculator is a type of electronic calculator, usually but not always handheld, designed to calculate problems in science (especially physics), engineering, and mathematics. They have almost completely replaced slide rules in almost all traditional applications, and are widely used in both education and professional settings.
A fully featured scientific calculator with proper operator precedence is implemented, including trig functions and logarithms, factorials, 12 levels of parentheses, logs to base 2 (a handy function for information entropists!), bitwise logical operator, hex, octal, binary and ASCII display.
Modern scientific calculators generally have many more features than a standard four or five-function calculator, and the feature set differs between manufacturers and models; however, the defining features of a scientific calculator include:
Floating point arithmetic
logarithmic functions, using both base 10 and base e
trigonometric functions (some including hyperbolic trigonometry
exponential functions and roots beyond the square root
quick access to constants such as pi and e
In addition, high-end scientific calculators will include:
hexadecimal ,binary, and octal calculations, including basic Boolean math
statistics and probability calculations
conversion of units
While most scientific models have traditionally used a single-line display similar to traditional pocket calculators, many of them have at the very least many digits (10 to 12), sometimes with extra digits for the floating point exponent. A few have multi-line displays, with some recent models from Hewlett-Packed, Texas Instruments, Casio, Sharp, and Canon using dot matrix displays similar to those found on graphical calculators.
The addition (sum function) is used by clicking on the “+” button or using the keyboard. The function results in a+b.
The subtraction (minus function) is used by clicking on the “-” button or using the keyboard. The function results in a-b.
The multiplication (times function) is used by clicking on the “x” button or using the keyboard “*” key. The function results in a*b.
The division (divide function) is used by clicking on the “/” button or using the keyboard “/” key. The function results in a/b.
The sign key (negative key) is used by clicking on the “(-)” button. The function results in -1*x.
The square function is used by clicking on the “x^2” button or type “^2”. The function results in x*x.
The square root function is used by clicking on the “x” button or type “sqrt()”. This function represents x^.5 where the result squared is equal to x.
Raise to the Power
The raise to the power (y raised to the x function) is used by clicking on the “y^x” button or type “^”.
The natural exponential (e raised to the x) is used by clicking on the “e^x” button or type “exp()”. The result is e (2.71828…) raised to x.
The logarithm (LOG) is used by clicking on the “LOG” button or type “LOG()”.
The Natural logarithm (LN) is used by clicking on the “LN” button or type “LN()”.
Multiplicative inverse (reciprocal function) is used by pressing the “1/x” button or typing “inv()”. This function is the same as x^-1 or dividing 1 by the number.
Numbers with exponents of 10 are displayed with an “e”, for example 4.5e+100 or 4.5e-100. This function represents 10^x. Numbers are automatically displayed in the format when the number is too large or too small for the display. To enter a number in this format use the exponent key “EEX”. To do this enter the mantissa (the non exponent part) then press “EEX” or type “e” and then enter the exponent.
The Factorial function is used by clicking the “!” button or type “!”.
PI is a mathematical constant of the ratio of a circle’s circumference to its diameter.
The permutation function is used by clicking the “nPr” button.
The combination function is used by clicking the “nCr” button.
The cube function is used by clicking the “x3 “.The function results in “x*x*x”.
The cube root function is used by clicking “3|x “.
Various trig functions are involved as:-
Sine, cosine, tangent etc.
Inverse trig functions
Various inverse trig functions are also involved as:-
The following documentation is a project the “Name of the term paper allotted”. It is a detailed summary of all the drawbacks of the old system and how the new proposed system overcomes these shortcomings. The new system takes into account the various factors while designing a new system. It keeps into the account the Economical bandwidth available for the new system. The foremost thing that is taken care of is the Need and Requirements of the User.
Before developing software we keep following things in mind that we can develop powerful and quality software
Problem statement was to design a module:
Which is user friendly
Which will restrict the user from accessing other user’s data?
Which will help user in viewing his data and privileges?
Which will help the administrator to handle all the changes?
FUNCTIONS TO BE PROVIDED:
The system will be user friendly and completely menu driven so that the users shall have no problem in using all options.
The system will be efficient and fast in response.
The system will be customized according to needs.
Operating system: MS Windows XP or Windows Vista
Language Processor: Pentium IV Processor RAM: 512 MB Hard disk: 5 GB
Welcome to main menu of Scientific Calculator
Enter Your Choice?
Do your any task
Do you want to continue?
Switch off calculator
Scientific calculators are used widely in any situation where quick access to certain mathematical functions is needed, especially those such as trigonometric functions that were once traditionally looked up in tables; they are also used in situations requiring back-of-the-envelope calculations of very large numbers, as in some aspects of astronomy, physics, and chemistry.
They are very often required for math classes from the junior high school level through college, and are generally either permitted or required on many standardized tests covering math and science subjects; as a result, many are sold into educational markets to cover this demand, and some high-end models include features making it easier to translate the problem on a textbook page into calculator input, from allowing explicit operator precedence using parentheses to providing a method for the user to enter an entire problem in as it is written on the page using simple formatting tools.
In most countries, students use calculators for schoolwork. There was some initial resistance to the idea out of fear that basic arithmetic skills would suffer. There remains disagreement about the importance of the ability to perform calculations “in the head”, with some curricula restricting calculator use until a certain level of proficiency has been obtained, while others concentrate more on teaching estimation techniques and problem-solving. Research suggests that inadequate guidance in the use of calculating tools can restrict the kind of mathematical thinking that students engage in. Others have argued that calculator use can even cause core mathematical skills to atrophy, or that such use can prevent understanding of advanced algebraic concepts.
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There are other concerns – for example, that a people could use the calculator in the wrong fashion but believe the answer because that was the result given. Teachers try to combat this by encouraging the student to make an estimate of the result manually and ensuring it roughly agrees with the calculated result. Also, it is possible for a child to type in âˆ’1 Ã- âˆ’1 and obtains the correct answer ‘1’ without realizing the principle involved. In this sense, the calculator becomes a crutch rather than a learning tool, and it can slow down students in exam conditions as they check even the most trivial result on a calculator.
FUTURE SCOPE OF THE PROJECT
Our project will be able to implement in future after making some changes and modifications as we make our project at a very low level. So the modifications that can be done in our project are:
To make it screen touch so no need to touch key buttons and one more change which can we made is to add snaps of the person who use it.
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