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Government Guidelines on Food and Nutrition for Children

Paper Type: Free Essay Subject: Childcare
Wordcount: 2128 words Published: 21st Nov 2017

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Q1) Construct a table to identify the main government guidelines on food and nutrtion and evaluate the ways in which they can be incorporated into the child care setting.


Food Groups:




Protein foods ( meat + beans )


Babies 0-6 months – breast or formula milk.

6-9 months – milk , dairy, water, variety of different textured solid liquidised meals.

9 months–1 year milk, water, lumpy foods.


Daily recommendation for fruit group.



1-3 years old

1 cup


4-8 years

1 to 1 ½ cups


9-13 years

1 ½ cups


14-18 years

1 ½ cups


9-13 years

1 ½ cups


14-18 years

2 cups

Daily recommendation for vegetables group.


1-3 years old

1 cup

4-8 years

1½ cups


9-13 years

2 cups

14-18 years

2½ cups


9-13 years

2½ cups

14-18 years 3 cups

Daily recommendation for Grain group.

Children 1-3 years old 3 ounce equivalents

4-8 years 5 ounce equivalents

Girls 9-13 years 5 ounce equivalents

14-18 years 6 ounce equivalents

Boys 9-13 years 6 ounce equivalents

14-18 years 8 ounce equivalents

Daily recommendation for Protein foods group.

Children 1-3 years old 2 ounce equivalents

4-8 years 4 ounce equivalents

Girls 9-13 years 5 ounce equivalents

14-18 years 5 ounce equivalents

Boys 9-13 years 5 ounce equivalents

14-18 years 6 ounce equivalents

Daily recommendation for Dairy group

Children 1-3 years old 2 cups

4-8 years 2 ½ cups

Girls 9-13 years 3 cups

14-18 years 3 cups

Boys 9-13 years 3 cups

14-18 years 3 cups

Vitamins and Minerals

Recommended Dietary Allowances for Folate.

Age Male Female

Birth to 6 months 65 mcg 65 mcg

7-12 months 80 mcg 80 mcg

1-3 years 150 mcg 150 mcg

4-8 years 200 mcg 200 mcg

9-13 years 300 mcg 300 mcg

14-18 years 400 mcg 400 mcg

19+ years 400 mcg 400 mcg

Recommended Dietary Allowance for Iron

Birth to 6 months 0.27 mg 0.27 mg

7-12 months 11 mg 11 mg

1-3 years 7 mg 7 mg

4-8 years 10 mg 10 mg

9-13 years 8 mg 8 mg

14-18 years 11 mg 15 mg

Recommended Dietary Allowance for Magnesium.

Birth to 6 months 30 mg 30 mg

7-12 months 75 mg 75 mg

1-3 years 80 mg 80 mg

4-8 years 130 mg 130 mg

9-13 years 240 mg 240 mg

14-18 years 410 mg 360 mg

Recommended Dietary Allowance for Selenium.

0-6 months 15 mcg 15 mcg

7-12 months 20 mcg 20 mcg

1-3 years 20 mcg 20 mcg

4-8 years 30 mcg 30 mcg

9-13 years 40 mcg 40 mcg

14-18 years 55 mcg 55 mcg

Recommended Dietary Allowance for Zinc.

Age Male Female

0-6 months 2 mg 2 mg

7-12 months 3 mg 3 mg

1-3 years 3 mg 3 mg

4-8 years 5 mg 5 mg

9-13 years 8 mg 8 mg

14-18 years 11 mg 9 mg

19+ years 11 mg 8 mg

Recommended Dietary Allowance for Vitamin A.

0-6 months 400 mcg 400 mcg

7-12 months 500 mcg 500 mcg

1-3 years 300 mcg 300 mcg

4-8 years 400 mcg 400 mcg

9-13 years 600 mcg 600 mcg

14- 18 years 900 mcg 700 mcg

Recommended Dietary Allowance for Vitamin B6.

0-6 months 0.1 mg 0.1 mg

7-12 months 0.3 mg 0.3 mg

1-3 years 0.5 mg 0.5 mg

4-8 years 0.6 mg 0.6 mg

9-13 years 1.0 mg 1.0 mg

14-18 years 1.3 mg 1.2 mg

Recommended Dietary Allowance for Vitamin D.

0-12 months 10 mcg 10 mcg

1-13 years 15 mcg 15 mcg

14-18 years 15 mcg 15 mcg

Recommended Dietary Allowance for Vitamin E.

0-6 months 4 mg 4 mg

7-12 months 5 mg 5 mg

1-3 years 6 mg 6 mg

4-8 years 7 mg 7 mg

9-13 years 11 mg 11 mg

14+years 15 mg 15 mg

Q2) Identify and describe the types of food that are unsuitable for babies and young children. You should specify the reasons why these foods are unsuitable.


Honey: Honey may contain the spores of a type of bacterium called Clostridium Botulinum that can cause a very serious illness in babies.

The clostridium botulinum bacteria can sometimes occur naturally in honey, and although the bacteria does not grow in the honey and cause problems. It can grow in the gastrointestinal trot of babies less than 1 year of age, and can lead to the medical condition Infant Botulism.

Salt and sugar: Salt and sugar shouldn't be added to babies food.

Processed foods, foods tinned in brine and snacks such as chips. Gravies and stock cubes, not specifically for infants, are very high in salt. Even small quantities of salt can prove dangerous for babies. This is because at their young age their kidneys are unable to process the salt in the way that adults kidneys can.

Young children should avoid sugar, particularly sugar drinks and snacks.

Things such as soft drinks, fizzy drinks prepackaged convenience foods, foods are very high in sugar which can be potentially harmful to a babies or young child's developing organs, they also increase the risk of tooth decay and acid erosion.

The following foods should be avoided due to the higher risk of food poisoning.

*fermented meats


*fish and shellfish

*raw sprouts

*raw eggs

All food should be cooked throughly.

Eggs are high in protein and because babies have delicate intestine system they can react to the amount of protein found. After 6 mouths well cooked eggs can be given.

Large fishes such as swordfish, shark and marlin contain high levels of mercury which can have a detrimental effect on the development of the nervous system.

Nuts: Nuts should not be given to children under the age of 6 as they can be a potentially fatal choking hazard and peanut allergy. However if there is no history of peanut allergy in the family, they can be given to young children in the form of peanut butter or crushed and added to yogurts or cereals.

Q3) Design a child record form for a new child joing a home care setting with specific dietary requirement. Describe the dietary requirements and why it should be documented accurately.


Childs name................Prashant Thakor

Dietary requirements............Islamic religion. No pork products meat must be halal. foods containg animal fat are not eaten

Consequence of the dietary requirement not being followed....

against religion.

Emergency instructions should ingestion of an allergic food occur.....


Necessary medication...... N/A

Emergency contact information......contact parents immediately to let them know what happened.

Parental signature


Child care provider signature

When Prashant starts the home setting, parents need to fill in information sheets about Prashant and their family religion needs.

Prashant can only eat halal meat. This is dietary requirements. Prashant parents need to put this in the information pack so the (practioner) is made aware and can have this information on a file. It will then be written up and displayed in the kitchen area where the food is prepared.so whoever is preparing the food is aware of all children's requirements.

It is important to make sure all children's dietary requirements are presented this way to make sure they are eating what their parents have specified and not breaking their religion needs. As well children with allergies if this is not displayed in the cooking area or on file, the child may come to harm from having food they shouldn't.

Q4) Define the 4 childhood chronic diseases identified in the course manual, and discuss the ways in which development can be effected.


Asthma: Asthma is a disease that effects the lungs and airways.

Children is asthma, their airways are always slightly inflamed compared to other children airways.

When children come into contact with dust, animals, smokers or carring out daily activities like PE, running around in the playground, this can lead to them becoming out of breath, wheezing, coughing which leads to their airways becoming more inflamed leading to an attack and the children panicking. Children with asthma tend to take medicine or have inhalers to control their asthma, however if a attack occurs it does not help.

Asthma affects children's physical development as when running around thisb makes them become wheezy and out of breath leading to them missing PE activities or if they have attacks this can result in children missing school and missing out on daily activities and not being able to catch up.

Diabetes: Diabetes is where the body does not produce enough insulin from the pancreas which is needed to collect glucose to give children the energy to carry out daily activities without feeling to tired or ill. There are two types of diabetes.

Type 1 diabetes which is controlled on a healthy diet and insulin injections and type 2 is more controlled with just a healthy diet and when the children go into adulthood they may need medication or insulin.

Diabetes can affect children's development because they can become tired and confused which can affect their concentration in school and their learning. In some cases children become frustrated and worried about the affects of their diabetes in school, as at home they may incur bed wetting by accident.

They may have a smelly breath and worry about what their peers will say.

Cystic Fibrosis: Cystic fibrosis is a inherited disease. It is where to much mucus has built up in the child lungs causing infections and shortness of breath . It can cause delay in a child's growth and to gain weight. The child may have a lot of time off school due to regular injections. Some children might be able to go to school however will not be able to cope playing and PE lessons.

Cerebral Palsy: Cerebral Palsy is caused by damage to the brain prior to birth, even though the damage does not get any worse, it does not get any better.

A child with cerebral palsy demonstrates some physical difficulties because the individual child and their lack of control of their muscles which can lead to stift painful limbs. Some children struggle to walk, run have good posture and even sitting down with their legs crossed. They struggle to develop the ability to do this due to the muscles and limbs.



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